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To enhance, improve, promote, and facilitate the North Dakota Emergency System. The North Dakota Century Code on this website contain currently effective laws of North Dakota. Changes approved by the 65th Legislative Assembly are now reflected on this website. Sections of law with expiration dates or delayed effective dates are indicated in the Section caption.

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These laws, still in force today, after having been upheld by state and federal courts, make it almost impossible to foreclose on farmland, as even after foreclosure, the property title cannot be held by a bank or mortgage company. It was replaced by a limestone -faced art-deco skyscraper that still stands today.

Western North Dakota saw a boom in oil exploration in the late s and early s, as rising petroleum prices made development profitable. In recent years, the state has had lower rates of unemployment than the national average, and increased job and population growth.

For decades, North Dakota's annual murder rate and the violent crime rate was regularly the lowest in the United States. In recent years, however, while still below the national average, crime has risen sharply.

In , the violent crime rate was three times higher than in with the rise mostly occurring in the late s, coinciding with the oil boom era. This happened at a time when the overall US violent crime rate declined slightly.

The fourth least-populous state in the country, only Alaska , Vermont , and Wyoming have fewer residents. From fewer than 2, people in , North Dakota's population grew to near , by Growth then slowed, and the population has fluctuated slightly over the past seven decades, hitting a low of , in the census, with , in the census.

Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century, North Dakota, along with most of the midwest, experienced a mass influx of newcomers from both the eastern United States and immigrants from Europe. North Dakota was a known popular destination for immigrant farmers and general laborers and their families, mostly from Norway , Sweden , Germany and the United Kingdom.

Much of this settlement gravitated throughout the western side of the Red River Valley , as was similarly seen in South Dakota and in a parallel manner in Minnesota. This area is well known for its fertile lands.

But a period of higher rainfall ended, and many migrants weren't successful in the arid conditions. Many family plots were too small to farm successfully. From the s until the end of the 20th century, North Dakota's population gradually declined, interrupted by a couple of brief increases. Young adults with university degrees were particularly likely to leave the state. Many people moved to urban areas for jobs. Since the late 20th century, one of the major causes of migration from North Dakota is the lack of skilled jobs for college graduates.

Expansion of economic development programs has been urged to create skilled and high-tech jobs, but the effectiveness of such programs has been open to debate. Elsewhere, the Native American population has increased as some reservations have attracted people back from urban areas. North Dakota is one of the top resettlement locations for refugees proportionally.

According to the U. Office of Refugee Resettlement, in — "more than 68 refugees" per , North Dakotans were settled in the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 3, people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 21, people.

Island areas, or born abroad to American parent s , and 2. According to the Census , the racial and ethnic composition of North Dakota was as follows: Throughout the midth century, Dakota Territory was still dominated by Native Americans. Warfare and disease reduced their population at the same time Europeans and Americans were settling in the state. In the 21st century, most North Dakotans are of Northern European descent. As of , the seven largest European ancestry groups in North Dakota are:.

North Dakota has the most churches per capita of any state. The largest church bodies by number of adherents in were the Roman Catholic Church with ,; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with ,; and the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod with 22, Other languages spoken included Serbo-Croatian 0. In the 21st century, North Dakota has an increasing population of Native Americans, who in made up 5. By the early 19th century the territory was dominated by Siouan-speaking peoples, whose territory stretched west from the Great Lakes area.

The federally recognized tribes have Indian reservations in the state. Throughout Native American history, powwows were held, usually in the spring, to rejoice at the beginning of new life and the end of the winter cold. These events brought Native American tribes together for singing and dancing and allowed them to meet with old friends and acquaintances, as well as to make new ones.

Many powwows also held religious significance for some tribes. Today, powwows are still a part of the Native American culture and are attended by Natives and non-Natives alike. A pow wow is an occasion for parades and Native American dancers in regalia, with many dancing styles presented. It is traditional for male dancers to wear regalia decorated with beads, quills, and eagle feathers; male grass dancers wear colorful fringe regalia, and male fancy dancers wear brightly colored feathers.

Female dancers dance much more subtly than the male dancers. Fancy female dancers wear cloth, beaded moccasins, and jewelry, while the jingle dress dancer wears a dress made of metal cones. Inter-tribal dances during the powwow, allow everyone even spectators can take part in the dancing.

Around many European immigrants from Norway settled in North Dakota's northeastern corner, especially near the Red River. Icelanders also arrived from Canada.

They started Lutheran churches and schools, greatly outnumbering other denominations in the area. This group has unique foods such as lefse and lutefisk. The Icelandic State Park in Pembina County and an annual Icelandic festival reflect immigrants from that country, who are also descended from Scandinavians. Old World folk customs have persisted for decades in North Dakota, with the revival of techniques in weaving, silver crafting, and wood carving.

Traditional turf-roof houses are displayed in parks; this style originated in Iceland. A stave church is a landmark in Minot. Ethnic Norwegians constitute nearly one-third or Ethnic Germans who had settled in Russia for several generations grew dissatisfied in the nineteenth century because of economic problems and because of the revocation of religious freedoms for Mennonites and Hutterites.

By , about , immigrated to the U. The south-central part of North Dakota became known as "the German-Russian triangle".

They were Lutherans and Roman Catholics who had kept many German customs of the time when their ancestors immigrated to Russia. They were committed to agriculture. Traditional iron cemetery grave markers are a famous art form practiced by ethnic Germans. North Dakotan musicians of many genres include blues guitarist Jonny Lang , country music singer Lynn Anderson , jazz and traditional pop singer and songwriter Peggy Lee , big band leader Lawrence Welk , and pop singer Bobby Vee.

Shadoe Stevens hosted American Top 40 from to Outdoor activities such as hunting and fishing are hobbies for many North Dakotans. Ice fishing , skiing , and snowmobiling are also popular during the winter months.

Residents of North Dakota may own or visit a cabin along a lake. Popular sport fish include walleye , perch , and northern pike. Agriculture is North Dakota's largest industry, although petroleum, food processing , and technology are also major industries. Its growth rate is about 8. According to Gallup data, North Dakota led the U. The state has a Job Creation Index score of 40, nearly 10 points ahead of its nearest competitors.

North Dakota's personal income growth is tied to various private business sectors such as agriculture, energy development, and construction. Fargo is home to the second-largest campus of Microsoft with 1, employees, and Amazon. At end of , the state per capita income was ranked 17th in the nation, the biggest increase of any state in a decade from rank 38th.

Due to a combination of oil-related development and investing in technology and service industries, North Dakota has had a budget surplus every year since the market crash. North Dakota highest unemployment rate since the late 20th century was 6. That is below the current unemployment rate of the majority of states.

North Dakota's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. With industrial-scale farming, it ranks 9th in the nation in the value of crops and 18th in total value of agricultural products sold. Large farms generate the most crops. The share of people in the state employed in agriculture is comparatively high: In addition, this development has adversely affected habitats of wildlife and birds, and the balance of the ecosystem.

The state is the largest producer in the U. Corn yields are high in the southeast part of the state and smaller in other parts of the state.

Most of the cereal grains are grown for livestock feed. Canola is suited to the cold winters and it matures fast. Processing of canola for oil production produces canola meal as a by-product. The by-product is a high-protein animal feed. Soybeans were not grown at all in North Dakota in the s, but the crop has become especially common since Soybeans are grown for livestock feed.

North Dakota is the second leading producer of sugarbeets , which are grown mostly in the Red River Valley. The state is also the largest producer of honey, dry edible peas and beans, lentils , and the third-largest producer of potatoes. The energy industry is a major contributor to the economy. North Dakota has both coal and oil reserves.

Shale gas is also produced. There are larger and higher grade coal reserves anthracite , bituminous coal and subbituminous coal in other U. The oil reserves of the Bakken Formation may hold up to billion barrels 6. North-Western North Dakota is the center of an oil boom: As of [update] , the state is the 2nd-largest oil producer in the U. The Great Plains region, which includes the state of North Dakota, has been referred to as "the Saudi Arabia of wind energy.

North Dakota is considered the least visited state, owing, in part, to its not having a major tourist attraction. Outdoor attractions like the mile Maah Daah Hey Trail and activities like fishing and hunting attract visitors. The park often exceeds , visitors each year. The state also receives a significant number of visitors from the neighboring Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, particularly when the exchange rate is favorable.

North Dakota has six level-II trauma centers , 44 hospitals , 52 rural health clinics , and 80 nursing homes. North Dakota law requires pharmacies, other than hospital dispensaries and pre-existing stores, to be majority-owned by pharmacists. Voters rejected a proposal to change the law in In addition, "it administers federal disaster recovery programs and the Homeland Security Grant Program".

The major Interstate highways are Interstate 29 and Interstate 94 , with I and I meeting at Fargo , with I oriented north to south along the eastern edge of the state, and I bisecting the state from east to west between Minnesota and Montana. A unique feature of the North Dakota Interstate Highway system is virtually all of it is paved in concrete, rather than blacktop, because of the extreme weather conditions it must endure.

Hill and ran from St. Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound and Jefferson Lines. Public transit in North Dakota includes daily fixed-route bus systems in Fargo, Bismarck-Mandan, Grand Forks, and Minot, paratransit service in 57 communities, along with multi-county rural transit systems. As with the federal government of the United States, political power in North Dakota state government is divided into three branches: The executive branch is headed by the elected governor.

The current governor is Doug Burgum , a Republican who took office December 15, , after his predecessor, Jack Dalrymple did not seek reelection. The offices of governor and lieutenant governor have four-year terms, which are next up for election in The governor has a cabinet consisting of appointed leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state , attorney general , state auditor , and state treasurer.

Both senators and representatives are elected to four-year terms. The state's legal code is named the North Dakota Century Code. North Dakota's court system has four levels. Municipal courts serve the cities, and most cases start in the district courts , which are courts of general jurisdiction.

There are 42 district court judges in seven judicial districts. Today, five federally recognized tribes within the boundaries of North Dakota have independent, sovereign relationships with the federal government and territorial reservations:. The state has one at-large congressional district represented by Representative Kevin Cramer R.

As of [update] , the Constitution Party and the Libertarian Party are also organized parties in the state. At the state level, the governorship has been held by the Republican Party since , along with a majority of the state legislature and statewide officers.

Dem-NPL showings were strong in the governor's race, and in the legislative elections, but the League has not had a major breakthrough since the administration of former state governor George Sinner. The Republican Party presidential candidate usually carries the state; in , George W. Bush won with Of all the Democratic presidential candidates since , only Grover Cleveland , one of three votes , Woodrow Wilson and , Franklin D. Roosevelt and , and Lyndon B.

Johnson received Electoral College votes from North Dakota. On the other hand, Dem-NPL candidates for North Dakota's federal Senate and House seats won every election between and , and the state's federal delegation was entirely Democratic from to North Dakota has a slightly progressive income tax structure; the five brackets of state income tax rates are 1.

The state imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within North Dakota. Owners of real property in North Dakota pay property tax to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts. The Tax Foundation ranks North Dakota as the state with the 20th most "business friendly" tax climate in the nation. Fargo is the largest city in North Dakota and is the economic hub for the region.

Bismarck , in south-central North Dakota along the banks of the Missouri River , has been North Dakota's capital city since , first as capital of the Dakota Territory , and then as state capital since A few miles west of Bismarck on the west side of the Missouri River, the city of Mandan was named for the Mandan Indians who inhabited the area at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. New Salem is the site of the world's largest statue of a holstein cow ; the world's largest statue of a bison is in Jamestown.

West Fargo , the fifth largest city in North Dakota, [] is one of the fastest growing cities. The state has 11 public colleges and universities, five tribal community colleges , and four private schools. North Dakota University System public institutions: The ground squirrel constantly flicks its tail in a distinctive manner.

In , legislation to make the ground squirrel the state emblem was voted down in the state legislature. The state has 10 daily newspapers, the largest being The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead. Other weekly and monthly publications most of which are fully supported by advertising are also available.

The most prominent of these is the alternative weekly High Plains Reader. Several new stations were built in Williston in the early s. Public access television stations open to community programming are offered on cable systems in Bismarck , Dickinson , Fargo , and Jamestown. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the U. For other uses, see North Dakota disambiguation. State of the United States of America. Geography of North Dakota. List of North Dakota counties. Climate of North Dakota. Dakota Territory and History of North Dakota. North Dakota oil boom. Religion in North Dakota [62] religion percent Protestant. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Music of North Dakota. Cuisine of North Dakota. List of North Dakota companies and North Dakota locations by per capita income.

List of hospitals in North Dakota. Politics of North Dakota. List of cities in North Dakota. List of colleges and universities in North Dakota. List of North Dakota state symbols. For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from North Dakota.

North Dakota portal United States portal. Retrieved June 22, Retrieved December 9, United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved October 24, Go to North Dakota". Retrieved February 7, Dakota population growth is tops in U.

Retrieved August 17, The Real North Dakota Project. Archived from the original on September 25, Archived from the original on September 28, There are a number of complex legalities with the different adoption options available in North Dakota.

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Rescuers will foster these animals in their homes, making them part of the family while providing care and training.

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The adoption fees are in place to help cover these costs, and also help provide food for the animals left in the shelter.

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