Vermittlung Linguee Dies bedeutet, dass der Silberkurs nicht nur durch das Angebot aus der Silberförderung und die industrielle Nachfrage bestimmt wird, zu einem wesentlichen Teil sind auch die privaten Anleger an der Entwicklung des Silberpreises beteiligt.(Feingehalt) Silberwert , , , , , , er Silberpreis in. Detailed information about the coin ½ Dollar "Walking Liberty Half Dollar", United States, with pictures and collection and swap management: mintage, descriptions, .
The castle's ruins which have partly been restored are currently maintained by the City of Ota. It was long believed until that the tenshu keep of Kanayama Castle was moved to Inuyama Castle by Ishikawa Mitsuyoshi in Such theory was disapproved as a result of examination through a large scale restoration work, involving the dismantling of the donjon of Inuyama Castle, carried out between and He is associated with the sosaku hanga movement and the mingei folk art movement.
He was awarded the Order of Culture, the highest honor in the arts by the Japanese government in Due to the impoverished circumstances of his family, he had only an elementary school education; however, he exhibited a passion for art from early childhood.
In third grade, he began illustrating kites for his classmates. Munakata's early career was not without obstacles. Unable to sell his paintings, he was forced to repair shoes and sell natto part time to survive. He was rejected by the Bunten The Japan Art Academy Exhibition four times, until one of his paintings was finally accepted in However, by this date, his attention had shifted away from oil painting to the traditional Japanese art of woodblock printing.
Quotations of Shiko Munakata "Like the vastness of space, like a universe unlimited, untold, unattainable, and inscrutable- that is the woodcut. Japan after the BIG earthquake March 11, Apsara, Apsaras, Heavenly Maidens. A monk asked Joshu: This has been translated in a great number of ways. But really it doesn't matter.
This museum was opened in to commemorate the awarding of the Order of Culture to Shiko Munakata, the extraordinary woodblock print artist born in Aomori. Its goal is to inform future generations about the wide-ranging creative activities of this world-class artist, who did not focus on woodblock prints alone.
The long-cherished desire of Shiko Munakata is reflected in the works exhibited here: The art of Munakata is condensed into woodblock prints impressive in their scale, such as Ten Great Disciples of the Buddha, as well as exquisite Yamato-e classical paintings painted by hand , oil paintings that reflect his admiration for van Gogh, and fascinating, dynamic calligraphy. Moreover, the museum exhibits the printing blocks he used and many other artifacts that provide visitors with a multifaceted understanding of Shiko Munakata.
As well as the works themselves, the building and garden are also very appealing. The museum building itself, in the azekura log-cabin style, and the pond-stroll-style Japanese garden have been designed to complement each other with their unique appearance, and never fail to captivate visitors. There's no doubt that you'll be delighted by the beauty of the Tohoku region, no matter what the season. He has a lotus flower on his head.
CLICK for more samples! This is maybe the most famous statue in this position. Miroku is silently and quietly pondering how to save the world and all creatures on it, now and in the future. The Nyorai are all seated in deep meditaion. This form is most popular with statues of Ten deities and priests.
This version is typical for China and seldom seen in Japan. The wooden statue is about 63 cm high. More rarely shown positions include: Meist zeigen sie einen Nyorai in tiefer Meditation.
Diese Formen finden sich häufig bei Ten- und Priesterfiguren. Priest Roben , who was the de facto founder of Todaiji, came back to Kanagawa in at the age of 48, shortly after the consecrating ceremony of the Great Buddha at Todaiji was over. First thing he did in Kanagawa was to climb Mt. Oyama, literally "a great mountain" and highly revered by the locals, where he found a stone statue of Fudo Myo-o, or Acala-vidyaraja in Skt.
Interpreting it was a divine revelation, he made up his mind to found a temple not a shrine right on top of the mountain. He practiced asceticism in the mountain for three years. Getting the emperor's approval, he finally built a temple and named it Ukosan Daisanji. In the early Kamakura Period , Yoritomo Minamoto , the founder of the Kamakura Shogunate, patronized the Shrine and dedicated a holy sword to Sekison Gongen every year, praying for continued luck in arms.
On the record is the fact that in he visited the Shrine and prayed that Masako Hojo , his wife, might have an easy delivery. Entering the Hojo Era in , however, the Hojo Regents did not give as much support to the Shrine as Yoritomo had been, and the Shrine began to go downhill. It was Priest Gangyo? Unable to tolerate the sight of the half-desolate temple, he determined to restore it.
Collecting necessary alms and funds, he rebuilt the temple and made two iron-cast statue of Fudo Myo-o during the to period. The first one was dubbed " Trial Fudo ," as he made it as a trial, which is now enshrined at Kakuonji in Kamakura. The second one was for the temple, which is centimeter tall, and nearly as tall as 2 meters if its halo is included.
The statue became the main object of worship of the temple, and the main hall was built precisely at the site where the Shrine's main hall stands today. Worshipers called the temple " Oyama Fudo " or " Oyama-dera. Oyama Afuri Jinja Shrine From July 27 to August 17 at Afuri Shrine. Mount Oyama was famous for its rain rituals during the Edo period. Mount Oyama is 1, metres high and has long been regarded as a holy mountain and object of worship. A sacred Shinto mikoshi is carried from the Afuri jinja, which is located on the top of Mount Oyama, first to the lower shrine on the side of the mountain, and then on down to the shrine office at the very foot of the mountain; a distance of 8km.
Allerdings darf das Gewicht der Barren zwischen und Feinunzen variieren. Besteck, Münzen, Barren und Schmuck 4. Auch bei Tafelsilber Teller, Kannen, Schalen etc. Der Metzger wird auch nichts zu verkaufen haben. Die preis für silber Zeitspanne war broker forex no deposit nur als stärke gewählt um zu veranschaulichen wie überlegen meine Empfehlung ist.
Königskette kaufen — Gold und Silber. Vermittlung Linguee Dies bedeutet, dass der Silberkurs nicht nur durch das Angebot aus der Silberförderung und die industrielle Nachfrage bestimmt wird, zu einem wesentlichen Teil sind auch die privaten Anleger an der Entwicklung des Silberpreises beteiligt.
Feingehalt Silberwert , , , , , , er Silberpreis in.. Daher werden wie bei sammlerzuschläge bei goldmünzen. Von silbertiger am Prices apply to our outlets and online shop. Der erste dämper war letzte woche der zweite wird die USA wahl werden wenn die Frau gewinnen wird. Warum auch immer meist duch generationswechsel dann ist der efekt genau so als wäre es eine inflation auf EM gleich.
Der Bedarf steigt mit dem Fortschreiten der Technik und der Notwendigkeit den Konsum für die wachsende Weltbevölkerung aufrechterhalten,ja steigern zu können. Interesante art also ist der krieg doch nach deiner logig der in den letzten ca jahr geldsytem entstanden ist nur duch das geldsytem verursacht. Dem Silbertiger Vorwürfe zu machen finde ich nicht in Oednung, jeder soll sich ja seines eigenen Verstandes bedienen, da hatte Kant schon Recht.
Silber kaufen Warum Silber kaufen? Gewicht von 23 - 34 kg. Not only did he preserve all his own drafts, copies or abstracts of his letters, memoranda, notes, even papers he had left unfinished or had rejected, even the most unimportant and inconsequential jottings. He did the same with all the letters he received from about twelve hundred correspondents all over the world, those of Spinoza, Malebranche, Bossuet, Huygens, the Bernoullis, Gilbert Burnet, Sir Isaac Newton, Muratori, Made- leine de Scudery, of course, but also that of an obscure alchemist who begged for an old winter coat in return for which he prom- ised to teach Leibniz's valet the secret of making gold.
In short, he must have been unable to discard any sheet of paper on which there was some writing. For a long time the very existence of this mine of historical information remained practically unknown. When, in , Louis Dutens edited the first Opera omnia of Leibniz he included, with insignificant exceptions, only the already- printed though widely scattered writings. For a century the library administra- tion seems not to have cared much for this possession, since hardly anything was done to bring some systematic order into the chaotic mass of papers, and occasionally a distinguished visitor was given a manuscript as a souvenir.
Only about the middle of the XlXth century did this deplorable neglect subside. Scholars of the rank of G. Gerhardt, Onno Klopp, and above all Eduard Bode- mann, the erudite librarian of the Royal Library, catalogued, ordered, and partly edited the unpublished manuscripts and cor- respondence, and the Hanoverian archives thus became a Mecca for Leibniz students of all countries.
Yet the immense effort spent over a century on utilizing these treasures was neither sufficient nor entirely successful. Some comprehensive editions were stopped long before they could be completed because of political interdicts against the editors the Prussian Government, for instance, barred Onno Klopp from the library of Hanover because of his Guelphic and Catholic sym- pathies , or were interrupted by the death of the editor, or were undertaken by not adequately competent scholars who spread regrettable misreadings and misunderstandings, or selected the material for publication according to subjectively biased and time-bound principles.
Sometimes, and not too infrequently, items were omitted simply because the editor did not understand them or was unable to read them. Nobody ought to be blamed too much for omissions of the former kind. For certain ideas of Leibniz, particularly in logic and mathematics, began to make sense only when the contemporary development had caught up with anticipations in the work of the great forerunner. And, finally, no single scholar of our days, however many-sided and comprehensive his intellectual culture, would or should dare to T 25 1 follow and appreciate Leibniz's thought in all the areas of his all-embracing and creative endeavors.
King Frederick 1 1 of Prussia is generally credited with having said that Leibniz represented in himself an entire academy. As a matter of fact, long before the Prussian monarch, the Memoires pour Vhistoire des sciences better known as the Journal de Trevoux , reporting in a letter from Germany Leibniz's appointment as president of the recently founded Academy of Berlin, had already stated that "il vaut lui seul une compagnie toute entiere.
The history of practically any field in human civilization would have to include for the XVI I th century, a chapter or at least a paragraph, on Leibniz's contributions if all his work were known. The man who created one of the few great and original systems of philosophy, who invented the infinitesimal calculus, the theory of determinants, the "Analysis situs," and the logical calculus, who discovered the correct estimation of "vis viva," and first con- ceived of the principle of least action, who constructed a per- fectly working computing machine, also conceived and drafted a plan for the Suez Canal, was one of the diplomatic agents for the elevation of the House of Hanover to the electorate and later its accession to the throne of Great Britain, was the founder and first president of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and instigator of its sister institutions in Leipzig, Vienna, and St.
Petersburg, and worked lifelong for the union and reunion of the Christian churches. And the same man was one of the first critical historiog- raphers, one of the founders of the doctrine of international law, was a comparative linguist and a mining engineer, a Bible inter- preter and a sinologist, a historical geologist and a promoter of the newly discovered ipecacuanha, and a poet whose Good Friday hymn, Jesus am Kreuze, has been included in a large number of Lutheran hymnals in Germany.
Con- sequently in the International Association of Academies took up the idea and charged the Academies of Berlin and Paris with the execution of the plan to publish a complete and critical edition of all the extant writings of Leibniz.
For this ambitious project, the co-operation of expert political historians, philoso- phers, and mathematicians in France and Germany was assured and the first step, the building up of inventories of the manu- scripts and printed material preserved in Hanover and elsewhere and of the necessary critical apparatus, got well under way. But alas, the course of world history which so often before had brought similar undertakings to a stop, interrupted and even- tually strangled this monumental attempt.
The First World War buried it under the ruins of Franco-German relations, and the only witnesses of this international co-operation are two fascicules of the planned "Critical Catalogue" of Leibniz's written work, which cover but his early years and are not complete even for that period. When that war ended, the Prussian Academy of Sciences, mindful at last of its debt of honor toward its long neglected, at times even defamed, founder and first president, de- cided to continue alone work on the edition.
Again a staff of experts and specialists set about the task of publishing about forty which probably would have become fifty volumes in quarto of Leibniz's writings, divided into six series; of these, up to this date, seven imposing volumes have been published four of the general, political, and historical correspondence, one of the philosophical correspondence, one of the political and one of the philosophical writings , but nothing as yet of the mathematical and scientific series.
Hitler's domination of Germany and the ensuing Second World War again interrupted the enterprise. Some of the "non- aryan" editors were dismissed, other collaborators died, and finally, when Berlin was occupied by the Allies, the editors who had remained left for the West, since the Prussian Academy, at which the whole apparatus built up in half a century is preserved, fell into the Russian Zone. The former Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, now renamed Deutsche Akademie, still seems willing to continue work on the edition and the last published volume, the manuscript of which had been ready for print before  the war, was indeed brought out under the Russians; but whoever has an intimate knowledge of the tremendous difficulties of this scholarly enterprise and of the painstaking learning it demands of the editors will be skeptical about the possibility of carrying out the project with a new staff that cannot benefit from the experi- ence of people who have spent a lifetime with Leibniz.
At any rate, it is a safe prediction that no one alive today will witness completion of the edition. Should all work on Leibniz be suspended then for an indefinite length of time, should all the historical and systematic problems depending on the knowledge of unprinted sources be frozen until they may not be topical any longer?
Since we are far from per- petual peace, should the treasure of Hanover be again exposed to the danger of irretrievable loss which it fortunately escaped dur- ing the heavy bombing of the city?
These and similar considera- tions prompted two students of Leibniz, John W. Nason, then President of Swarthmore College, and this writer who has spent a considerable part of his life studying and editing Leibniz, to conceive a few years ago the project of applying the modern technique of microfilming to the task of preserving and making accessible to interested scholars the unpublished manuscripts of Hanover.
They were fortunate enough to find sympathetic under- standing at the Library of Congress and the Library of the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania whose Director, Dr. David, with his assistant Rudolf Hirsch, has indefatigably and efficiently pursued this difficult project, and finally the help of The Rocke- feller Foundation whose Division of the Humanities has from the beginning granted its moral support to the plan and has facili- tated its realization through a munificent grant-in-aid.
The Li- brary of Hanover and the authorities of Niedersachsen have magnanimously consented to permit the filming and to co-operate to that effect, so that there is now every reasonable hope that, in the relatively near future, the microfilm will be deposited at the University of Pennsylvania Library, where it will be available for scholarly work on Leibniz and his time. The basis for the selection of manuscripts to be reproduced has been furnished by the two catalogues published by Eduard Bodemann, 5 in part implemented by notes of this writer and his familiarity with these papers.
The principle guiding our choice  was to film every unpublished or inaccurately and unreliably published manuscript and letter of or to Leibniz which has or might in the future acquire any relevance for biographical, his- torical or systematic studies.
That is to say that only such papers have been omitted for which no reasonable scholarly interest can be conceived, such as most of the many thousand pages of mere abstracts Leibniz made of books he read without writing down any comment, the copies of diplomatic and other documents made by himself or his secretary the texts of which are available elsewhere, the dossiers of his early activity as a judge, the drafts of papers of which the definitive form is known in print or manu- script, provided the successive forms show no significant varia- tions, and similar items which may interest graphologists and would certainly have an immense value for autograph collectors but which would only encumber our microfilms.
Even so, these will reproduce about one hundred thousand pages of manu- scripts. Of course, certain printed "Leibnitiana" are not available everywhere; some are, and already were in the XVIIIth century, rarities of the first class; for instance, two philosophic texts pub- lished after the Hanover manuscript by Jagodinsky in Charkow shortly before the Russian Revolution of But he misread them so badly that we would have included them in our list even if copies of the printed books were available in every public and college library of the United States.
Other extremely scarce edi- tions have been reprinted long since in some of the later collec- tions. At any rate, it would not have been feasible to reproduce, for instance, the manuscripts of Leibniz's historical works, the original editions of which fill eight enormous volumes in-folio, simply because these volumes are very rare. Moreover, practically all the printed works of Leibniz, including publications of other authors and periodicals which contain articles or letters of his are present in this writer's Leibniz collection, now housed at the University of Pennsylvania, and may be obtained in the usual way through the Library of this University.
A word about the organization of Bodemann's catalogues, which may be useful to future students of the microfilms. Not all letters of or to Leibniz preserved in Hanover are listed in the alphabetically arranged Briefwechsel, nor all other manuscripts in  the Handschriften.
In some cases Leibniz has for his own purpose joined letters to systematically classified folders if they referred to the business under discussion and, vice versa, impersonal drafts may sometimes be found in the correspondence files. Thus many letters concerning the union and reunion of the Christian churches are preserved among the theological manuscripts. A catalogue of the entire correspondence of nearly fifty thousand letters, organized chronologically and according to correspond- ents, was being prepared by the editors of the Prussian Academy, but is neither complete nor accessible to the public.
Leibniz's handwriting is not easy to read at first. He often covered the same page first horizontally with his lines, then vertically, and not infrequently he used the diagonal dimension in addition, perhaps because the court treasury complained about the high paper bills of the library. Thus it may occasionally take much patience and pains to read the texts; yet, unless there has been physical destruction of parts of manuscripts, practically all of them can be deciphered with special permission of your ophthalmologist.
For unlike many high-speed writers who use a sort of personal stenography, Leibniz wrote out all the letters of a word. It is to be hoped that the magnificent opportunity which this microfilm offers to students of the humanities in this country will be widely used.
What Leibniz himself called the "hortus con- clusus," the closed garden, of his doctrines, is thus opened to the learned public at large. Many topics which could not be thor- oughly treated before because of the difficulty of consulting the unpublished papers are now awaiting the scholar who is willing and sufficiently prepared to deal with them.
Two of them may be mentioned briefly. Leibniz's work in the sciences seems so far to have been by-passed by contemporary research, despite the rise of interest in the history of the sciences.
True, his gigantic figure in the history of mathematics has been repeatedly and thoroughly studied and appreciated, even though some points still remain to be clarified. But his contributions to physics, where his anti- Newtonianism created a prejudice against him, to chemistry, to geology, to biology, to medicine, and to the social and political sciences still are generally neglected.
Secondly, despite the re- markable and successful efforts expended by Louis Couturat, [30 1 Karl Diirr, and others on the study of Leibniz's logic, there has been published so far no comprehensive and critical presentation and appreciation of his achievements which would avail itself of the refined implements of analysis afforded by recent develop- ments in this field.
And, finally, a standard biography of Leibniz remains still a desideratum. Guhrauer, in the year , published his life of Leibniz, a masterful work for his epoch, at least as much more material has come forth as was available a century ago, and the old biography has become outdated. What an enthusiastic Leibnizian wrote in , "Leibniz, the pride of the Germans, still lies unburied" 6 is true again as it was true then.
So long as the unpublished papers were so hard to reach, the debt of honor of the international Republic of Letters to erect a "Monu- mentum gloriae" to one of its greatest citizens in the form of a biography worthy of the man, could hardly be paid. The author whose complaint we have just quoted added that "it is very doubtful whether Leibniz will ever find a biographer worthy of him. For details concerning the succession, cf. Leibniz, Lettres et fragments inedits, ed.
Schrecker, Paris, , pp. Reprinted in the edition of the Prussian Academy, Ser. Der Brief wechsel des G.
Leibniz in der Kgl. Kent's gift of a complete collection of the articles written by Dr. Kent together with the texts of which he was author, co-author, or editor. The collection is supplemented by a significant index volume. Kent was a distinguished scholar in the field of classical studies and comparative philology. It is appropriate that the results of his research and his thinking should be in the Library of the University on whose faculty he served for almost fifty years.
Indeed, the nature of the Kent collection together with the fact of its donation to the Library make the temptation to point a moral irresistible.
Our storehouses of accumulated knowledge libraries, museums, etc. Students and scholars would find available material that might otherwise be difficult to locate, and the paths of their researches would thus be made less tortuous.
The ideal having been proposed and the moral "pointed," it remains to be acknowledged, of course, that those who write are also human.
Parents of publications doubtless exhibit as many variations in conduct with regard to their offspring as do parents of children. It was characteristic of Roland G. Kent that he should preserve his writings in orderly fashion and supplement them with an index that was built over the years, growing along with his activities.
Kent had a fundamental respect for orderliness, for logical arrangement, for precision in the conduct of affairs, and for the patience exacted thereby. Among the many linguistic questions on which he wrote, the controversy over the value of teaching the classics always had a special attraction for Dr.
He welcomed an opportunity to reaffirm his belief that the study of the classics developed many estimable qualities among which he counted logical continuity of thought and effective working methods. In each volume, articles appear in a variety of forms.
Reprints, excerpts from journals, complete issues of journals, and mounted clippings are combined and sewed securely in sturdy bindings.
The arrangement of the articles is chronological throughout, from vol. I, covering the years , through vol. Articles are numbered serially from [no. At the beginning of each volume there is a numerical listing of the articles included in the volume.
Occasionally a number in an individual volume's table of con- tents refers the reader to one of the separately bound texts in the collection, for Dr. Kent included the latter by title in their proper chronological sequence in the contents listings in individual volumes of the Papers, as well as in the master index volume. In addition to the fifteen volumes of Papers, the collection in- cludes Dr.
Newbold, edited by Dr. Kent; two bound volumes of Dr. In most of these volumes, pages of mounted review articles have been inserted. The Cipher of Roger Bacon is accompanied by a complete volume containing advertising notices and reviews.
This volume is similar in make-up to the volumes of Papers. It begins with a numerical listing of its contents, and the numbers and titles of the reviews appear in their proper chronological sequence in the separate index volume. The Index is a unique item. Between its covers there is the out- line of a man's professional life, and its arrangement is indicative T 33 1 of much in that mans personality. The vital quality of the Index is due to the fact that it grew with its author, expanded with the pursuits it records.
Kent did not index the subject content of his articles although some of the sections of the Index provide a subject approach ; instead, he made a record of people, places, and dates associated with his writings. The structure of the Index is based on two factors: The Index might well serve as a model for what librarians term "ready reference.
Then there is the complete, consolidated list of all articles, re- views, and texts in chronological order, with each title preceded by its serial number referring to a volume of Papers, a volume of reviews, or a separate issue, as the case may be. Besides these two major listings, there is an alphabetical list of journals, series, and newspapers in which articles appeared. Following the name of each publication in this list appear one or more of the serial numbers assigned to individual articles.
Listed in like manner are: Reviews are rather fully indexed by- author and by subject matter. Rebuttal articles and their authors also have listings. Kent no doubt found pleasure in assembling his papers.
Others will derive benefit from his efforts and satisfaction from the availability of the collection. Saulys was a prominent figure in Lithuanian public life. As a member of the Lithuanian National Council, he was active in the establishment of the Lithuanian State and was a co-signer of the Declaration of Independence of Lithuania; in the diplomatic service, he held the posts of envoy to Germany, the Vatican, Poland, and finally to Switzerland, where he died in Saulys was not a practicing scholar, he per- formed an important service to the world of learning by assem- bling this notable library.
The collection is particularly strong in Lithuanian history of almost every period. Lithuania occupied an exceptional geographical position, serving as the dividing line between the East and the West, and playing an important part in the historical development of a considerable part of Europe.
As a result, Lithuanian history has achieved a significance beyond the country's borders. Germans have shown interest in Lithuanian history because of the activi- ties of the Teutonic Knights against whom the Lithuanians struggled for two centuries; the Russians have exhibited much interest in Lithuania's past because of the latter country's con- quest of vast areas of Slavic territories, extending as far as the Black Sea; Poland, however, was the country most intimately connected with early Lithuania, because the unity which existed between the two countries created a great number of common problems.
Linguistically, therefore, the Saulys collection includes materials in Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, and German. One of the most important sources of Lithuanian history con- sists of the Archives of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy Metryka Magni Ducis Lithuaniae , transferred to Russia at the end of the 18th century after the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian State, and now in Moscow.
They were published in part only. Much his- torical source material was accumulated in the State Archives of Vilna formerly known as Central Archives of Vilna.
Some of these documents are described in Opis' Dokumentov Vilenskago tsentraPnago arkhiva drevnikh knig; some were actually published by the Committee for the Examination of Old Documents in Vilna more commonly known as the Archeographic Committee of Vilna in its Akty izdavaemye Vilenskoiu kommissieni dlici razbora drevnikh aktov and in monographs outside this series; the Saulys collection contains several volumes of this series as well as indi- vidual titles like the Reviziia pushch i perekhodov zvierinnykh v byv- shem Velikom Kniazhestvie Litovskom , the Ordinatsiia koro- levskikh pushch v liesnichestvach byvshago Velikago Kniazhestva Litov- skago , and the Pistsovaia kniga grodnenskoi 'ekonomii Further source material may be found in the Arkheograficheskii sbornik dokumentov , the Vetera monumenta Poloniae et Lithuaniae , and the Monumenta Poloniae vaticana 3— The old chronicles of Lithuania are published as vol.
Dubinski ; Sobranie drevnikh gramot i aktov gorodov: Vtfny, Kovna, Trok , Skarbiec diplomatow, ed. Danito- wicz and scattered volumes of the Monumenta medii aevi historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia.
Quite logically the collection contains publications on Prussian history, such as the Scriptores rerum prussicarum ; Preus- sisches Urkundenbuch ; and Die Staatsvertr'dge des Deut- schen Or dens in Preussen im The Index corporis historico-diplomatici Livoniae, Esthoniae, Curoniae, ed. Individual historical works published from the 16th to the 18th centuries are represented in the Saulys collection, and include M.
Cellarius Amsterdam, ; Historia Lituaniae, by W. Venator Nuernberg, 1 ; Alt- und neues Preussen, by C. Hart- knoch Frankfurt, ; Lieflaendische Historia, by C. The Saulys collection contains several incomplete runs of Lithuanian, Polish, and German historical periodicals. Five volumes of the Lithuanian encyclopedia afford some valuable historical articles also, and there are published reports of the Fifth and Sixth Conference of Polish Historians, and , respectively, as well as a report of the First Baltic Conference of Historians in General historical works include the Lietuvos islorija, ed.
Sapoka , Ocherk istorii litovsko-russkago gosudarstva do liublinskoi unii, by M. LfubavskiT" , Obraz Litwy, by J. Jaroszewicz , Geschichte Polens, by R. Quite a number of the Saulys books are devoted to definite periods in Lithuanian history. Prehistoric times are discussed in Naujausiv.
Puzinas ; Lietuvos archeologijos medziaga, by P. Krzywicki ; Ur geschichte Ostpreussens, by W. La Baume ; and such publications as Congressus secundus archaeologorum balticorum, Riga, Valuable material on Lithuanian archaeology is found in pam- phlets and reprints of articles by archeologists, notably, L. Daugirdas Dowgird , J. Klimas , and Studia nad poczatkami spoieczenstwa i panstwa litewskiego, by H.
An account of Mindaugas, his policies and exploits, has been written by J. Totoraitis in his Die Litauer unter dem Kb'nig Mindove This period is treated in Synowie Gedymina, by K. Stadnicki , Olgierdi Kiejstut, by K. Stadnicki , Rod Gedymina, by J. Wolff and Kgstutis, by J. Thus began the Jagellon dynasty which ruled both countries until Jogaila himself is the subject of a monograph by A. Prochaska , and of a collective work, edited by A.
The Jagellons are discussed by H. After Jogaila had become king of Poland, Lithuania was ruled inde- pendently by his cousin, Grand Duke Vytautas Russian Vitovt, Polish Witold , who brought Lithuanian power to its peak and who, together with Jogaila, decisively defeated the Teutonic Knights in Many monographs have been written on Vytautas; the best known are by A.
Pfitzner, and a collective work edited by P. After the death of Vytautas, in , the Lithuanian State started to weaken, although several capable rulers appeared after this time. When Jogaila became king of Poland, he brought the two coun- tries into dynastic unity. The last and most important act of unity between both nations was signed in at Lublin.
The records of the diet at which this act was signed appear in Russian translation in Dnevnik Liublinskago seima g. It must be noted, however, that even after this act of unification Lithuania continued to enjoy a certain degree of independence, for each country maintained its own individual army, fiscal system, dis- tinct laws, and strictly defined boundaries. Documents concern- ing the union have been published in Akta unji Polski z Litwq , ed.
Other works concerned with this period are: Dzieje uniijagiellonskiej, by O. Alseika , genezie i wartosci Krewa, by H. Paszkiewicz , Lietuva ir Lenkija po m. Liublino unijos, by I. Lappo , etc. Bound by unification with Poland, Lithuania followed the fate of her ally. At the end of the 18th century Poland and Lithuania were divided, during the so-called period of the partitions, and finally lost their independence altogether in Selected titles dealing with this period are: Histoire des trois demembremens de la Poiogne, by A.
Ilovarskn ; Ksiqze Repnin i Poiska, by A. Kraushar , and Rzady Repnina na Litwie, by L. In the 19th century, Lithuania and Poland tried by means of armed uprisings to rid themselves of their Russian masters and regain their independence.
We find the rebellion described by H. Accounts of the uprising of are given in Moskowskie na Litwie rzqdy , by W. Czaplicki , Pamietniki z lat , by J. Gieysztor , Rok ,wyrokismierci,ed. Studnicki, and Litva i Bielorussiia vvozstanii g. The 1 9th century in Lithuanian history is the century of na- tional revival. Because of previous ties with Poland, the Lithua- nian nobility had become more or less absorbed in Polish society.
Thus, real progress could not be made until the lowest class was freed by the act of emancipation of the serfs in It is unfor- tunate that Lithuanian culture was dealt a heavy blow at the same time; after the uprising of was crushed, Russia imposed severe repressions on the population of Lithuania. Lithuanians were forbidden to print their own books in the Latin alphabet.
It was thought that acceptance of the Russian alphabet by the Lithuanian people would make them more susceptible to indoctrination in the Russian language and culture. Only about 60 Lithuanian books were actually published in Russian trans- literation; these have become collectors' items.
One of these is in the Saulys collection, viz. Russkaia gramota dlia litovtsev The Russian educational policy in Lithuania is discussed by J. Matusas in his Lietuviq rusinimas per pradzios mokykias The Lithuanians did not succumb, and for 40 years they fought for the right to print again in the Latin alphabet.
During the interim, Lithuanian books were printed in Latin script in East  Prussia and illegally brought into Lithuania where they were widely distributed. In the first patriotic Lithuanian newspaper, Ausra Dawn , appeared, followed later by others, of which Varpas The Bell, was the best known. Saulys was for a short time the editor of this paper, and in his collection there is an almost complete file of it, with the exception of nos.
For information concerning Lithuanian newspapers of that time, the reader is referred to Die Presse Litauens unter Berucksichtigung des nationalen Gedankens und der qffentlichen Meinung, by V.
Lithuania regained its independence only after the first World War The emergence of the Lithuanian State as well as the period of German occupation of Lithuania is treated by P. It would be proper to note here the reminiscences of that period written by P. In addition, the Saulys collection has many political pamphlets and reprints of articles concerning this important period of Lithuanian history.
The Saulys collection is not rich in material on the life of independent Lithuania. A general survey of the twenty years of independent Lithuania is given in Lietuva, , ed. Agriculture, commerce, and finances are treated by J. Statistical data may be found in Lietuva skaitmenimis , and Lietuvos apgyventos vietos , both published by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Lithuania, during her independence, had to face two vital political problems, the question of the legal status of the two areas of Vilna and Memel.
Lithuania never relinquished her claim to Vilna as her ancient capital. Vilna was occupied by Poland in , immediately after the latter's abrogation of a treaty signed shortly before. After several unsuc- cessful attempts by the League of Nations to settle the dispute, and after Vilna had been officially incorporated into the Polish State, Lithuania broke diplomatic relations with Poland, closing her border to that country.
This condition lasted until 1 when Poland, making use of the tense European situation created by  Nazi Germany, forced Lithuania to reopen diplomatic relations with her.
It should be noted, however, that even earlier Poland attempted through the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague to force Lithuania to reopen the border, but the Court, in , rendered a decision in favor of Lithuania.
This case is fully described in Consultations de MM A. Le Four et A. The Polish-Lithuanian conflict concerning the Vilna question is discussed by K. In addition, there arc many pamphlets dealing with this problem, one of which should be mentioned: Milosz, the well-known French author and former Lithuanian envoy to France.
The second serious problem with which Lithuania had to deal was that of Memel Klaipeda. The Memel area, prior to World War I, belonged to Germany, but in was rejoined with Lithuania as an autonomous unit.
The interpretation of the Memel statute caused many political misunderstandings. One of these disputed interpretations was brought before The Hague Court in , and the case was decided in favor of Lithuania.
The proceedings of the case are fully recorded in the Court's publication entitled Interpretation du statut de Memel The Saulys collection has a great number of works dealing with the Memel question, by such authors as A.
A particularly valuable commentary is the Kommentar der Konvention uber das Memelgebiet vom 8. Mai , by J. After Hitler came to power, a national socialist movement directed against Lithuanian sovereignty arose in the Memel area. The leading members of this movement were brought before Lithuanian courts in The trial is known as the case of Neuman, von Sass, and codefendants.
The Saulys collection has the complete text for the prosecution published and the decision of the Court The collection includes, in addition works on church history, e. Geschichte der rejormierten Kirchen in Lithauen, by J. Lukaszewicz , Biskupstwo imujdzkie, by M. Woionczewski , Kosciol zamkowy, czyli Katedra wilenska, by J. Education is represented by several significant titles: Lukaszewicz , Dawna akademia wilenska, by M. Balinski , Uniwersytet wilenski, by J.
Bieliriski , and Vilniaus meno mokykla, , by P. Bandtkie , Cztery wieki drukarstwa w Wilnie, by L. Abramowicz , and Bibljoteka uniwersytecka w Wilnie do roku go, by M. Among a number of titles on law there are litewskich i polskich prawach, by T. Janulaitis , Litovsku statut g. Lappo , Litovsko-russku seim, by M.
Liubavskn , Oblastnoe dielenie i miestnoe upravlenie litovsko- russkago gosudarstva, by M. Lappo and Lietuvos konslitucines teises paskaitos, by M. Economics finds representation in Lietuvos visuomenes ukio bruorai ligi Liublino unijos metu, by A.
Her- aldry and genealogy arc covered in Herbarz rycerstwa W. Hcraldyka polska wickow srednich, by F. Boniecki and Pacowie, materiaty historyczno-genealogiczne, by J. The Saulys collection contains various studies on individual districts and towns.
Two noteworthy titles are: Suduvos Suvalkijos istorija, by J. Totoraitis and Uzhemune po Prusais, , by A.
Diese werden westlich durch die Niechaer Rittergutsflur die sogenannten Hutungsäcker von der Jauernicker Flur getrennt und bilden daher eine Enklave von Jauernick. This "Grumbachische Handel" takes its name from the rather sinister figure who was the instigator and director of the abortive revolt, a Franconian knight, Wilhelm von Grumbach.
Similarly, for the Alciato, it was judged that 24, sheets would suffice— or four bales 20, , eight reams 4, and eight quires sheets.