Hofstede Insights enables you to solve Intercultural and Organisational Culture challenges by utilising our effective and proven framework based on Geert Hofstede’s work. Compare countries Please select a country in the dropdown menu below to see the values for the 6 dimensions. After a first country has been selected, a second and even a third country can be chosen to be able to see a comparison of their scores.
It is claimed that one reason why the French are less obese than people in other EU-countries is that parents still have more sway over children than in other EU-countries. Whether this is true or not is not known by us. All the same, what is true is that the family has still more emotional glue than in other Individualist cultures.
This is a reflection of the high score on Power Distance with its stronger respect for the elderly. Another reflection of high Power Distance contrary to formal obedience is the total rejection of those in power as there is no way to change by evolution but only by strikes, revolts and revolution.
The need to make a strong distinction between work and private life is even stronger in France than in the US, despite the fact that the US scores higher on Individualism. This is a reflection of the fact that employees more quickly feel put under pressure than in the US because of their emotional dependence on what the boss says and does.
At least, if the power holders act as benevolent fathers. The French prefer to be dependent on the central government, an impersonal power centre which cannot so easily invade their private life. What is human, but more pronounced in France, is the need for strong leadership in times of crisis. In spite of that, when the crisis is resolved the president should make space for much weaker leadership. Customer service is poor in the eyes of all those Anglo-Saxons who believe that the customer is king.
Not so in France. The French are self-motivated to be the best in their trade. They, therefore, expect respect for what they do, after which they are very much willing to serve you well. A low score Feminine on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable.
The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best Masculine or liking what you do Feminine. With a score of 43, France has a somewhat Feminine culture.
French culture in terms of the model has, however, another unique characteristic. The upper class scores Feminine while the working class scores Masculine. This characteristic has not been found in any other country. This difference may be reflected by the following: Top managers earn on average less than one would expect given the high score on Power Distance. Married couples of high society could go public with a lover without negative consequences, at least certainly in the past.
Uncertainty Avoidance This dimension, Uncertainty Avoidance, has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: This ambiguity brings anxiety with it, and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways.
The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on Uncertainty Avoidance. At 86, French culture scores high on Uncertainty Avoidance. This is clearly evident in the following: Structure and planning are required.
Before meetings and negotiations they like to receive all necessary information. As a consequence, the French are good in developing complex technologies and systems in a stable environment, such as in the case of nuclear power plants, rapid trains and the aviation industry.
Hofstede's theory can be contrasted with its equivalence at individual level: Variations on the typologies of collectivism and individualism have been proposed Triandis, ; Gouveia and Ros, Self-expression and individualism increase with economic growth Inglehart, , independent of any culture, and they are vital in small populations faced with outside competition for resources.
Like the power index, the individualism and collectivism surveys scatter countries according to predictable economic and demographic patterns Triandis, [ full citation needed ] , so they might not really inform us at all about any particular organizational dynamic, nor do they inform about the organizational and individual variations within similar socio-economic circumstances.
Individual aggregate need careful separation from nation aggregate Smith et al. Whereas individuals are the basic subject of psychological analysis Smith, , the socialization of individuals and their interaction with society is a matter to be studied at the level of families, peers, neighborhoods, schools, cities, and nations each with its own statistical imprint of culture Smith, Schwartz controlled his value data with GNP and a social index, leading to his proposal of differentiated individual and nation indices of itemized values Schwartz, ; for cross-cultural comparison.
Within and across countries, individuals are also parts of organizations such as companies. Hofstede acknowledges that "the […] dimensions of national cultures are not relevant for comparing organizations within the same country". From to , Hofstede's institute IRIC Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation  has conducted a separate research project in order to study organizational culture. Including 20 organizational units in two countries Denmark and the Netherlands , six different dimensions of practices, or communities of practice have been identified:.
Managing international organizations involves understanding both national and organizational cultures. Communities of practice across borders are significant for multinationals in order to hold the company together. Within the occupational level, there is a certain degree of values and convictions that people hold with respect to the national and organizational cultures they are part of.
The culture of management as an occupation has components from national and organizational cultures. This is an important distinction from the organizational level. When describing culture, gender differences are largely not taken into consideration. However, there are certain factors that are useful to analyze in the discussion of cross-cultural communication. According to Hofstede's model, men's culture differs greatly from women's culture within each society.
Although men and women can often perform the same duties from a technical standpoint, there are often symbols to which each gender has a different response. In situations where one gender responds in an alternative manner to their prescribed roles, the other sex may not even accept their deviant gender role. The level of reactions experienced by people exposed to foreign cultures can be compared similarly to the reactions of gender behaviors of the opposite sex.
The degree of gender differentiation in a country depends primarily on the culture within that nation and its history. Hofstede's masculine-feminine dichotomy divides organizations into those exhibiting either compassion, solidarity, collectivism and universalism, or competition, autonomy, merit, results and responsibility.
The bipolar model follows typical distinctions made between liberal or socialist political philosophy for Hofstede. Although liberal economies value assertiveness, autonomy, materialism, aggression, money, competition and rationalism, welfare socialism seeks protection and provision for the weak, greater involvement with the environment, an emphasis on nature and well being, and a strong respect for quality of life and collective responsibilities.
According to Gilligan, this dimension is eurocentric and sexist. Edit Read in another language Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. Power distance index PDI: A higher degree of the Index indicates that hierarchy is clearly established and executed in society, without doubt or reason. A lower degree of the Index signifies that people question authority and attempt to distribute power. These in-groups are laced with undoubted loyalty and support each other when a conflict arises with another in-group.
Societies that score a high degree in this index opt for stiff codes of behavior, guidelines, laws, and generally rely on absolute truth, or the belief that one lone truth dictates everything and people know what it is.
A lower degree in this index shows more acceptance of differing thoughts or ideas. Society tends to impose fewer regulations, ambiguity is more accustomed to, and the environment is more free-flowing. In feminine societies, they share modest and caring views equally with men. In more masculine societies, women are somewhat assertive and competitive, but notably less than men.
In other words, they still recognize a gap between male and female values. This dimension is frequently viewed as taboo in highly masculine societies. A lower degree of this index short-term indicates that traditions are honored and kept, while steadfastness is valued. Societies with a high degree in this index long-term view adaptation and circumstantial, pragmatic problem-solving as a necessity. A poor country that is short-term oriented usually has little to no economic development, while long-term oriented countries continue to develop to a point.
This dimension is essentially a measure of happiness; whether or not simple joys are fulfilled. On the other hand, Anglo and Germanic countries have a lower power distance only 11 for Austria and 18 for Denmark. For example, the United States has a 40 on the cultural scale of Hofstede's analysis.
Compared to Guatemala where the power distance is very high 95 and Israel where it is very low 13 , the United States is in the middle. Germany scores a high UAI 65 and Belgium even more 94 compared to Sweden 29 or Denmark 23 despite their geographic proximity.
However, few countries have very low UAI. Masculinity is extremely low in Nordic countries: Norway scores 8 and Sweden only 5. In contrast, Masculinity is very high in Japan 95 , and in European countries like Hungary, Austria and Switzerland influenced by German culture. In the Anglo world, masculinity scores are relatively high with 66 for the United Kingdom for example.
Latin countries present contrasting scores: However, there are less data about this dimension. There are even less data about the sixth dimension. Correlations of values with other country differences Edit Researchers have grouped some countries together by comparing countries' value scores with other country difference such as geographical proximity, shared language, related historical background, similar religious beliefs and practices, common philosophical influences, identical political systems , in other words everything which is implied by the definition of a nation's culture.
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