Bilar från A till Ö: Chandler – lågprislyx med Lozier-look.

Ms. Li Pamp serves as Vice President of Product at Global Design Partners Stockholm AB. Ms. Pamp worked at Bukowskis, Stockholms Auktionsverk and Modernity Stockholm. She is . Li Marlene Pamp, (born Carlström 4 August in Malmö) is a Swedish television presenter and expert on antiquities. Pamp was born in Malmö and grew up in Bjärred in Skåne and later moved to Saltsjöbaden in Stockholm.

Plant anatomy

 · Li Pamp in Li Marlene Pamp, (born Carlström 4 August in Malmö) is a Swedish television presenter and expert on antiquities. Pamp was born in Malmö and grew up in Bjärred in Skåne and later moved to Saltsjöbaden in Stockholm. She studied art science at Lunds University and has worked at Bukowskis in Malmö and Stockholms Auktionsverk. She is an expert at s design .

Korsunskaya 2 , O. Rahimova 3 , S. ABSTRACT Psoriasis was used as a model to analyze the pathogenetic pathways of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and the results of bioinformatic, molecular-genetic and proteomic studies are provided.

New approaches for immune-mediated diseases are discussed. ABSTRACT This paper reviews the chemical and functional aspects of the posttranslational modifications of proteins, which are achieved by the addition of various groups to the side chain of the amino acid residue backbone of proteins.

It describes the main prosthetic groups and the interaction of these groups and the apoenzyme in the process of catalysis, using pyridoxal catalysis as an example. Much attention is paid to the role of posttranslational modification of proteins in the regulation of biochemical processes in live organisms, and especially to the role of protein kinases and their respective phosphotases.

Much attention is paid to the glycosylation of proteins, which leads to the formation of glycoproteins. We also describe the main non-enzymatic protein modifications such as glycation, homocysteination, and desamidation of amide residues in dibasic acids.

KEYWORDS proteins, enzymes, posttranslational modification, prosthetic groups, posphorylation, regulation, signal transduction, acylation, alkylation, ubiquitinilation, histone code, non-fermentative modification.

Basic achievements in genome research have resulted in the deciphering of the human genome and creation of a molecular landmarks map of the human haploid genome HapMap Project , which has made a tremendous contribution to our understanding of common genetic and multifactorial complex disorders. The concept of a genetic pass as an individual DNA databank reflecting inherited human predisposition to different complex and monogenic disorders, with special emphasis on its present state, and the numerous difficulties related to the practical implementation of personalized medicine are outlined.

The problems related to the uncertainness of the results of genetic testing could be overcome at least partly by means of new technological achievements in genome research methods, such as genome-wide association studies GWAS , massive parallel DNA sequencing, and genetic and epigenetic profiling.

The basic tasks of genomic today could be determined as the need to properly estimate the clinical value of genetic testing and its applicability in clinical practice. Feasible ways towards the gradual implementation of personal genetic data, in line with routine laboratory tests, for the benefit of clinical practice are discussed.

Yudkina 3,4 , E. Smirnova 1 , A. ABSTRACT The discovery of the pharmaceutical potential of small molecule inhibitors of oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases is one of the directions in target therapy in oncology. Presently, investigations aiming at developing new therapeutically important inhibitors have to be based on a combination of computational and experimental approaches including biochemical, cell-based or in silico screening and the study of the three-dimensional structure of the kinase active center, in complex with an inhibitor, using crystallography and X-ray analysis or molecular modeling.

Ordzhonikidze 1 , L. Ramaiyya 1 , E. Egorova 2 , A. In studies of the toxic effects, the death of mice was registered hours after injection only at two maximum dozes of SNP equivalent to 0. Genotoxic effects were assessed by the abnormal sperm heads test and neutral comet assay. Gromenko 1 , P. Spirin 2 , E. Kubareva 3 , E. Romanova 3 , V. Prassolov 2 , O.

Shpanchenko 1 , O. The hypothesis that deamination of 5-methylcytosine is the first stage of demethylation in mammalia has been postulated. ABSTRACT This report is a detailed review of the current data on mechanic and gravitational sensitivity of osteoblasts and osteogenic precursor cells in vitro. It summarizes the numerous responses of cells with an osteoblastic phenotype and osteogenic precursor cells and especially their responses to the alteration of their mechanic or gravitational surroundings.

KEYWORDS osteopenia, gravitational sensitivity of cells, microgravity, osteoblasts, osteogenic precursor cells, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, differentiation, cytoskeleton. A panel of DNA immunogens has been developed, some are already in the clinical trials. However, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, specifically of those applied to humans, needs a considerable improvement.

There are several approaches to increase DNA vaccine immunogenicity. One approach implies the modifications of the encoded immunogen that change its processing and presentation, and thus the overall pattern of anti-immunogen response. For this, eukaryotic expression vectors are constructed that encode the chimeric proteins composed of the immunogen and specialized targeting or signal sequences.

The review describes a number of signals that if fused to immunogen, target it into the predefined subcellular compartments. The review gives examples of their application for DNA-immunization. ABSTRACT Understanding the mutual interactions of bacterial and phage populations in the environment of a human or animal body is essential in any attempt to influence these complex processes, particularly for rational phage therapy. Current knowledge on the impact of naturally occurring bacteriophages on the populations of their host bacteria, and their role in the homeostasis maintenance of a macro host, is still sketchy.

The existing data suggest that different mechanisms stabilize phage-bacteria coexistence in different animal species or different body sites.

The defining set of parameters governing phage infection includes specific physical, chemical, and biological conditions, such as pH, nutrient densities, host prevalence, relation to mucosa and other surfaces, the presence of phage inhibiting substances, etc. Phage therapy is also an ecological process that always implies three components that form a complex pattern of interactions: We present a review of contemporary data on natural bacteriophages occuring in human- and animal- body associated microbial communities, and analyze ecological and physiological considerations that determine the success of phage therapy in mammals.

Patutina 1 , N. Mironova 1 , E. Ryabchikova 1 , N. Popova 2 , V. Nikolin 2 , V. Kaledin 2 , V. Vlassov 1 , and M. We found that intramuscular administration of RNase A at the dose range of 0. DNase I showed no effect on the primary tumor growth.

The intramuscular administration of RNase A 0. A histological analysis of the organs occupied by metastases revealed that the administration of RNase A and DNase I induced metastasis pathomorphism as manifested by the destruction of oncocytes, an increase in necrosis and apoptosis foci in metastases, and mononuclear infiltration. Our data indicated that RNase A and DNase I are highly promising as supplementary therapeutics for the treatment of metastasizing tumors.

Savin 1,2 , V. In the excess of hydrogen peroxide, the decrease in enzyme activity follows first-order kinetics. Therefore, the first-order effective inactivation kinetic constants determined for various FDH forms at a constant H 2 O 2 concentration can be used as a quantitative measure of the enzyme stability.

It was shown that two cysteine residues located in the active site formate- and coenzyme-binding domains Cys and Cys, respectively make similar contributions to the enzyme stability, while the contribution of Cys is insignificant.

Various pathologies, including carcinogenesis, are related to changes in functioning the proteasome forms. In this study, we looked at the changes in the pool of liver proteasomes during nodular regenerative hyperplasia and formation of adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice treated with Dipin, followed by partial liver resection.

The relative content of various proteasome forms was determined using Western blot analysis. These changes were more pronounced in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the level of the Rpt6 subunit present in the 19S proteasome activator was increased in carcinoma.

Our results indicate that nodular regenerative hyperplasia and adenomatosis may be stages preceding carcinogenesis. We also conclude that there is a need to find signalling pathways that change the expression of various proteasome subunits during carcinogenesis. The 19S proteasome activator, which is overexpressed in malignant tumours, can be a promising target for the development of new anticancer drugs.

KEYWORDS immunoproteasomes, 19S proteasome activator, chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes, Western blot analysis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver, adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, mouse liver. Sedova 1 , L. Verkhovskaya 1 , I. Rudneva 2 , E. Bogacheva 1 , Yu. Barykova 1 , D. Lysenko 1 , I.

Tutykhina 1 , D. Logunov 1 , Yu. Smirnov 2 , B. Naroditsky 1 and A. ABSTRACT Influenza viruses are characterized by a high degree of antigenic variability, which causes the annual emergence of flu epidemics and irregularly timed pandemics caused by viruses with new antigenic and biological traits.

Novel approaches to vaccination can help circumvent this problem. One of these new methods incorporates genetic vaccines based on adenoviral vectors. Moreover, it also protects the host from a lethal dose of H1 virus, which belongs to the same clade as H5, but does not confer protection from the subtype H3 influenza virus, which belongs to a different clade.

Our data allow us to conclude that adenoviral vectors may become a universal platform for obtaining vaccines against seasonal and pandemic strains of the influenza virus. Lavrentieva 8, Novosibirsk DNA-dependent enzymes DNA polymerases and DNA ligases are widely used to enhance the sensitivity and reliability of systems intended for the detection of point mutations in genetic material.

In this article, we have summarized the data on the selectiveness of DNA-dependent enzymes and on the structural factors in enzymes and DNA which influence the effectiveness of mismatch discrimination during enzymatic conversion of oligonucleotide probes on a DNA template. The data presented characterize the sensitivity of a series of DNA-dependent enzymes that are widely used in the detection of noncomplementary base pairs in nucleic acid substrate complexes.

We have analyzed the spatial properties of the enzyme-substrate complexes. These properties are vital for the enzymatic reaction and the recognition of perfect DNA-substrates. We also discuss relevant approaches to increasing the selectivity of enzyme-dependent reactions. Despite extensive research into the causes of these diseases, clinical researchers have had very limited progress and, as of now, there is still no cure for any of these diseases.

One of the main obstacles in the way of creating treatments for these disorders is the fact that their etiology and pathophysiology still remain unclear. Moreover, the calcium hypothesis states that this deregulation of calcium signaling is one of the early-stage and key processes in the pathogenesis of these diseases. InsP3 R1 - type 1 inositol 1,4,5 -trisphosphate receptor, mPTP mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Compared to widely used BOX-PCR and ribotyping methods, our system features higher resolution allowing differentiation of closely related isolates that appear identical in BOX-PCR and ribotyping but differ in their phage sensitivity.

The IS1-profiling system is less sensitive to the quality of the material and equipment used. At the same time, BOX-PCR is more universal and suitable for bacterial strain grouping and reconstruction of the low-distance phylogeny. Thus, our system represents an important supplement to the existing set of tools for bacterial strain differentiation; it is particularly valuable for a detailed investigation of highly divergent and rapidly evolving natural bacterial populations and for studies on coliphage ecology.

However, some isolates could not be reliably differentiated by IS1-PCR, because of the low number of bands in their patterns. For improvement of IS1-fingerprinting characteristics, we offer to modify the system by introducing the second primer TR hybridizing to the sequence of a transposase gene that is widely spread in enterobacterial genomes. ABSTRACT Until recently the biocatalytic preparation of enantiomerically pure amines was based on stereoselective acyl transfer in an organic medium using activated acyl donors.

The possibility of performing an effective and enantioselective enzymatic acylation of amines in an aqueous medium without using activated acyl donors was demonstrated for the first time as the example of direct condensation of phenylacetic acid and racemic 1-phenylethylamine. Direct condensation of the acid and the amine took place at mild reaction conditions with a high initial rate 3. The suggested approach has remarkable advantages compared to enzymatic reactions in organic media and is of practical value for the biocatalytic preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds at mild conditions using readily available reagents.

KEYWORDS stereoselective enzymatic acylation in aqueous medium, direct condensation, enantiomerically pure compounds, penicillin acylase. Shmalenyuk 1 , S. Kochetkov 1 , V. Erokhin 2 , T. Smirnova 2 , S. Andreevskaia 2 , and L.

Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover and develop new anti-TB drugs. Here we report a new category of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in vitro. A series of 2'-deoxy-, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-, and 3'-amino-2',3'-dideoxypyrimidine nucleoside analogues bearing lengthy flexible alkyloxymethyl substituents exhibited marked inhibitory activity against M tuberculosis in vitro.

In contrast, monophosphates of the tested nucleosides were devoid of antimycobacterial activity. This new class of inhibitors seems to be a promising chemotherapeutic agent against TB and merits further studies. Zakian Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Medvedev 1 , A. Shevchenko 1 , S. In this review, issues related to the nature of iPSCs are discussed and different methods of iPSC production are described.

We particularly focused on methods of iPSC production without the genetic modification of the cell genome and with means for increasing the iPSC production efficiency. The possibility and issues related to the safety of iPSC use in cell replacement therapy of human diseases and a study of new medicines are considered.

ABSTRACT This review defines bioorganic chemistry as one of the most important constituents of physico-chemical biology, which is a fundamental life science. The problems and goals of bioorganic chemistry are examined through a comparatively small number of examples. Bioorganic chemistry is supposed to be a logical continuation of the chemistry of the natural substances that arose many years ago.

Bioorganic chemistry has contributed some achievements in solving the problems of the chemical structure, biological function, and physiological activity of biopolymers and lowmolecular-weight bioregulators, as well as in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of different life processes.

The most striking achievements in bioorganic chemistry are discussed in this paper. Particular attention is focused on comprehensive research into polysaccharides and biopolymers bioglycans and some natural glycosides that the author of this review has studied for a long time. The author has worked in these institutes for a long time and was honored by being chosen to head one of the scientific schools in the field of bioorganic chemistry and molecular immunology.

Continuously growing interest in the study of this class of compounds is fueled by a number of factors: This article will review all of these aspects and also include a brief retrospect of this field of research. ABSTRACT Adult skeletal muscle fiber is a symplast multinuclear structure developed in ontogenesis by the fusion of the myoblasts muscle progenitor cells. The nuclei of a muscle fiber myonuclei are those located at the periphery of fiber in the space between myofibrils and sarcolemma.

In theory, a mass change in skeletal muscle during exercise or unloading may be associated with the altered myonuclear number, ratio of the transcription, and translation and proteolysis rates. Here we review the literature data related to the phenomenology and hypothetical mechanisms of the myonuclear number alterations during enhanced or reduced muscle contractile activity.

In many cases during severe muscle and systemic diseases and gravitational unloading , muscle atrophy is accompanied by a reduction in the amount of myonuclei. Such reduction is usually explained by the development of myonuclear apoptosis.

A myonuclear number increase may be provided only by the satellite cell nuclei incorporation via cell fusion with the adjacent myofiber. It is believed that it is these cells which supply fiber with additional nuclei, providing postnatal growth, work hypertrophy, and repair processes. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms controlling satellite cell proliferation during exercise, functional unloading, and passive stretch. KEYWORDS skeletal muscle, myonuclei apoptosis, physical training, working hypertrophy, satellite cells, growth factors, gravitational unloading, muscle stretch.

Khaliullin 1,2 , D. Suplatov 1 , D. Shalaeva 1 , M. Otsuka 3 , Y. Asano 3 , V. Significant homology between D-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi and other members of the family has been shown and a number of conserved residues identified as S62, K65, Y, N, H, and G Three of those Ser62, Lys65, and Tyr form a catalytic triangle — the proton relay system that activates the generalized nucleophile in the course of catalysis. Molecular modeling has indicated the conserved residue Lys65 to have an unusually low pKa value, which has been confirmed experimentally by a study of the pH-profile of D-aminopeptidase catalytic activity.

The resulting data have been used to elucidate the role of Lys65 in the catalytic mechanism of D-aminopeptidase as a general base for proton transfer from catalytic Ser62 to Tyr, and vice versa, during the formation and hydrolysis of the acylenzyme intermediate. Kotlyarov 1 , V. Kuprianov 1 , A. Migunov 2 , L. Stepanova 2 , L. Tsybalova 2 , O. Kiselev 2 , N. The high variability of the major immunogenic surface proteins — hemagglutinin and neuraminidase—require the development of strain-specific vaccines that match the antigenic specificity of a newly emerging virus.

Recombinant vaccines based on single viral proteins that could be easily produced in standard expression systems are attractive alternatives to traditional influenza vaccines. We constructed recombinant nanosized virus-like particles based on a nuclear antigen of the hepatitis B virus. These particles expose on the surface the extracellular domain of the M2 protein of the highly pathogenic A H1N1 influenza virus.

The methods of production of these virus-like particles in Escherichia coli and their purification were developed.

Experiments on animals show that M2sHBc particles are highly immunogenic in mice and provide complete protection against the lethal influenza challenge. Uglanova 1,4 , V. Fedorchuk 1 , S. Both parameters are in a range that corresponds to globular protein denaturation processes. Malakhova 1 , E. Shevchenko 1 , E. Dementyeva 1 , I. Sobolev 1 , I. Lebedev 2 , A. Shilov 1 , I. Zhimulev 3 , S. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be derived from human somatic cells by the overexpression of a number of genes.

In this study we reprogrammed fetal human skin fibroblasts by transduction with retroviral vectors carrying murine Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc cDNAs. As a result, cells with the protein expression and gene transcription pattern characteristic of human embryonic stem cells were derived. These induced pluripotent cells are capable of differentiation in vitro into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm derivatives. Markov 1 , O.

Nikolaeva 2 , D. Temperature dependencies for the aggregation of these two S1 isoforms, as measured by the increase in turbidity, were compared with the temperature dependencies of their thermal denaturation obtained from differential scanning calorimetry DSC experiments.

At relatively high ionic strength in the presence of mM KCl close to its physiological values in muscle fibers, we have found no appreciable difference between the two S1 isoforms in their thermally induced aggregation. Under these conditions, the aggregation of both S1 isoforms was independent of the protein concentration and resulted from their irreversible denaturation, which led to the cohesion of denatured S1 molecules. In contrast, a significant difference between these S1 isoforms was revealed in their aggregation measured at low ionic strength.

Under these conditions, the aggregation of S1 containing a light chain A1 but not A2 was strongly dependent on protein concentration, the increase of which from 0.

It has been concluded that the aggregation properties of this S1 isoform at low ionic strength is basically determined by intermolecular interactions of the N-terminal extension of the A1 light chain which is absent in the A2 light chain with other S1 molecules. These interactions seem to be independent of the S1 thermal denaturation, and they may take place even at low temperature.

Boldyrev 1 , A. Omelkov 2 , Yu. Utkin 1 , R. The hydrophobic pattern containing the tips of loops I—III and flanked by polar residues is known to be a membrane-binding motif of CTs. However, this is not enough to explain the difference in activity among various CTs which are similar in sequence and in 3D structure. The mechanism of further CT—membrane interaction leading to pore formation and cell death still remains unknown.

Published experimental data on the specific interaction between CT and low molecular weight anionic components sulphatide of the bilayer point to the existence of corresponding ligand binding sites on the surface of toxin molecules. In this work we study the membrane-lytic properties of CT I, CT II Naja oxiana , and CT 4 Naja kaouthia , which belong to different structural and functional types P- and S-type of CTs, by measuring the intensity of a fluorescent dye, calcein released from liposomes containing a phosphatidylserine PS lipid as an anionic component.

Using molecular docking simulations, we find and characterize three sites in CT molecules that can potentially bind the PS polar head. Based on the data obtained, we suggest a hypothesis that CTs can specifically interact with one or more of the anionic lipids in particular, with PS contained in the membrane, thus facilitating the interaction between CTs and the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane.

Stepanov Genomes, Populations and Diseases: Ethnic Genomics and Personalized Medicine V. We show the relationship between the structure of genetic diversity in human populations and the varying frequencies of Mendelian and multifactor diseases. We also examine the population basis of pharmacogenetics and evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, along with a review of new achievements and prospects in personalized genomics.

In this respect, p66shc is a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of age-related diseases. Salnikova 1 , N. Zelinskaya 2 , O.

Belopolskaya 1 , M. Aslanyan 3 , A. The obtained results are discussed in reference to literary data on the risk of malignant brain tumor formation in children and adults. Sokolenko 1,2 , A. Iyevleva 1,2 , N. Mitiushkina 1 , E. Suspitsin 1,2 , E. Preobrazhenskaya 1 , E. Kuligina 1 , D. Voskresenskiy 2 , O. Lobeiko 2 , N. Krylova 1 , T. Gorodnova 1 , K. Buslov 2 , E. Bit-Sava 1 , G. Dolmatov 4 , N. Porhanova 5 , I. Polyakov 5 , S. Abysheva 1 , A. Katanugina 1 , D.

Baholdin 1 , G. Yanus 1,2 , A. Togo 1 , V. Moiseyenko 1,3 , S. Maximov 1 , V. Semiglazov 1 , E. Petersburg 4 City Oncological Hospital, St. The epidemiology of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer in Russia has some specific features. In addition, there are two other recurrent BRCA1 alleles: Several Russian breast cancer clinics recently started to investigate the efficacy of cisplatin in the therapy of BRCA1 -related cancers; initial results show a unique sensitivity of BRCA1 -associated tumours to this compound.

Dementyeva 1,2 , S. ABSTRACT Sex chromosome evolution is accompanied by significant divergence in morphology and gene content and results in most genes of one of the sex chromosomes being present in two dosages in one sex and in one dosage in the other. To eliminate the difference in the expression levels of these genes between sexes and to restore equal expression levels of the genes between sex chromosomes and autosomes, mechanisms of dosage compensation have appeared.

Studies of three classical objects, Drosophila melanogaster , Caenorhabditis elegans , and mammals, have shown that dosage compensation of X-linked genes can be achieved through completely different chromosome-wide mechanisms. New data on sex chromosome gene expression demonstrating that many sex chromosome genes can be expressed at different levels in males and females were recently obtained from birds and butterflies. In this review, dosage compensation mechanisms in D.

Reshetnikov 1,4 , A. Kopylov 2,3,4 , A. The interest towards quadruplex DNAs is determined by their involvement in the functioning of telomeres and onco-promoters as well as by the possibility to create on their basis aptamers and nanostructures. Here, we present an algorithm for a general analysis of the polymorphism of the G-quadruplex structure from the data bank PDB using original parameters.

Two quantitative parameters were used to describe the quadruplex structure: The distribution patterns of these values are specific for each group of quadruplex structures and are dependent upon the type of connecting loops used diagonal, lateral or propeller.

The tetramolecular loopless parallel quadruplex was used as a comparison template. The lateral loops introduce the strongest distortion into the structure of quadruplexes: The loops of the diagonal type introduce much weaker deformation into quadruplexes; the structures with propeller loops are characterized by the optimum geometry of G-quartets.

Hence, the correlation between the twist angle and the tension in the structure of quadruplex DNA is revealed. This SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate has vasoprotective activity in respect to platelet interactions, tonus of the ring arterial fragment of a rat blood vessel, as well as normalization of hemodynamic parameters in rats and rabbits in conditions of oxidative stress caused by the administration of hydrogen peroxide.

The SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate had antiplatelet potential due to its antiaggregation action manifested through the combination of enzyme activities and an acquired supramolecular structure. Blood pressure and heart rate were significant and effectively normalized with SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate in rats and rabbits after hydrogen peroxide administration as a perturbance stimulus.

We have discovered the possibility of using the antioxidant bienzyme conjugate in chronic prophylaxis. These results indicate that the development of enzyme conjugates can be medically significant, as a promising approach for the creation of new drugs.

KEYWORDS antioxidant therapy, superoxide dismutase, catalase, chondroitin sulfate, vascular wall, oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide, bienzyme conjugate, platelets, ring arterial fragment, hemodynamics, vasoprotective activity. Glushkov 1 , S. Filipenko 1,2 , V. Matveeva 1,2 , A. Bakulina 1 , V. Lunin 3 , M. In this article, we will discuss a new approach to the development of anticarcinogenic vaccines.

The main task in our research was to select a benzo[a]pyrene immunomimetic peptide considered as a hapten-specific component. For this purpose, we synthesized carcinogen-protein conjugates and prepared mono- and polyclonal antibodies to benzo[a]pyrene.

Phage display technology was used to select the benzo[a]pyrene immunomimetic peptide, followed by an evaluation of the immunological properties of the obtained peptide. The obtained benzo[a]pyrene immunomimetic peptide could only simulate chemical carcinogens in the frame of the pIII protein. As a result, we prepared a recombinant protein composed of the benzo[a]pyrene immunomimetic peptide and pIII-encoding sequences.

Using molecular modeling, we predicted the 3-D structure of the mAB B2 active center and analyzed the characteristics of its interaction with different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as with the benzo[a]pyrene immunomimetic peptide. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of the results of the obtainment of hapten-specific components of anticarcinogenic vaccines allowed us to outline a strategy for future development in this direction.

Marshak 2 , D. Mukha 1 , A. The results presented allow for the consideration of the chromatin diminution as a mechanism of rDNA copy number regulation. Chernorizov 1 , V. ABSTRACT Hsp70 is a chaperone protein that participates in the folding of de novo synthesized proteins, protection of the hydrophobic regions of denaturated proteins, the regulation of apoptosis, the immune response, and several other cellular processes.

Despite the large number of publications devoted to the functioning and structure of Hsp70, a reliable full-size 3D structure of this protein remains currently unavailable. Several probable full-size models of human Hsp70 have been constructed based on the structures of individual domains and their components from different organisms and using molecular modeling methodology.

The stability of the obtained structures was studied using molecular dynamics. As a result of such an analysis, the most adequate model was selected. The model was built on the basis of Hsp70 elements from Bos Taurus and Caenorhabditis elegans. Using the method of steered molecular dynamics, the key salt bridges responsible for the interdomain interactions were identified: Based on the performed molecular modeling, the scheme of the mechanism triggering ATP hydrolysis and leading to the separation of ATPase and the substrate-binding domains was proposed.

Kovalyov 1 , M. Kovalyova 1 , K. Lisitskaya 1 , L. Eremina 1 , A. Ivanov 1 , E. Gerasimov 1 , E. Sadykhov 1 , N. Ulasova 2 , O.

Sokolova 2 , I. Toropygin 3 , V. PCP consists of 7 interrelated modules, each containing four levels of proteomic and biomedical data on the proteins in corresponding tissues or cells. The first data level, onto which each module is based, is a 2DE proteomic reference map where proteins separated by 2D electrophoresis, and subsequently identified by mass-spectrometry, are marked. The results of proteomic experiments form the second data level. The third level contains protein data from published articles and existing databases.

The database will be useful in a wide range of applications, including studies of molecular mechanisms of the aetiology and pathogenesis of prostate diseases, finding new diagnostic markers, etc. Logunov 1 , I. Gitlin 2 , M. Shmarov 1 , P. Adzhieva 1 , A. Moroz 1 , N. Kostyukova 1 , L. Burdelya 2 , B. Naroditsky 1 , A. Gintsburg 1 , A. The activation of PRR by specific, highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs induces numerous immune reactions related both to innate and adaptive immunity.

Makarycheva 1 , E. Tsareva 1,2 , M. Sudomoina 1,2 , O. Kulakova 1,2 , B. Titov 1,2 , O. Bykova 3 , N. Kuzenkova 3 , A. Boiko 2 , O. Proteins of the immune system, as well as proteins that are involved in the infiltration of activated immune cells in the CNS, play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS.

We investigated the association and linkage with MS of the following immune-system genes polymorphisms: For this purpose we used the transmission disequilibrium test TDT. The group investigated was comprised of nuclear families of Russian ethnicity, each consisting of an affected offspring and his nonaffected parents. Suplatov 1,2 , V.

However, numerous enzymes that derive from a common ancestor and have undergone substantial functional alterations during natural selection appear not to have a sequence similarity acceptable for a statistically reliable comparative analysis.

At the same time, their active site structures, in general, can be conserved, while other parts may largely differ. Therefore, it sounds both plausible and appealing to implement a comparative analysis of the most functionally important structural elements — the active site structures; that is, the amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. A computer algorithm has been developed to create a library of enzyme active site structures based on the use of the PDB database, together with programs of structural analysis and identification of functionally important amino acid residues and cavities in the enzyme structure.

The insight has revealed a high structural similarity of catalytic site areas, including the conservative organization of a catalytic triad and oxyanion hole residues, despite the wide functional diversity among the remote homologues compared. Gusev 2 , O. Zaitseva 2 , E. Lazareva 1 , G. Onishchenko 1 , E. Kuznetsova 3 , A. Tkachev 4 , A. Varmvattnet var för övrigt slut till lopp 9, allt lerinpackat och beigefärgat. Värst att inte kunna duscha häst ordentligt efter lopp.

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Av flera skäl än ett. Aldrig en lugn stund med Nuncio. Har Nuncio ätit, kissat, druckit, värmt ordentligt? Aggressiv marknadsföring som ger resultat. Travsportens egen Bert Karlsson. Hade säkert lurat tillbaks publiken. Historiskt sett är Gigant Neo vinnaren, med eller utan bucklan. Men skam den som ger sig och motstycke saknas i allt som stavas svensk travsport. Men nu är det slut. Ja, för den som hänger med globalt är den säkert mer välkänd än för oss övriga.

Vissa besökare är lika finklädda som vid Ascots tävlingar och andra strosar omkring i avspända fritidskläder. Restaurang, VIP-lounge, ölpub och rejäla publikläktare omger banan. Polska jockeyligan visar en handfull dugliga ryttare, ett kvinnligt proffs. Eller kanske rättare sagt, före och efter EU Sevärt i Sopot, förutom Hippodromen Det bästa av allt, rent och snyggt, billigt och gott.

Förhoppningsvis i Norrland hos en som gillar just honom. Advokat Uvabäck och Fabrice Souloy. Även människor behöver kobolt inte bara travhästar. En viktig del i B12, som krävs för att producera röda blodkroppar. Stora doser Kobolt är giftigt. DET vet vi redan. Spörappen dokumenterades och en muntlig fajt utbröt efter loppet mellan ryttare och banveterinär, som resulterade i anmälan och senare överklagan.

Ja, han har jobbet kvar. Storsatsning med internationellt stuk värd ett betydligt bättre öde. Vad är det för lik som ska grävas upp, vad gör galoppskribenterna för grävjobb? Etisk plattform, värdegrund, skyddsnät, trovärdighet och trygghet, har vi inte hört det förut? Stort kontor och liten verkstad. En ung tjej livserfarenhet? Antar att detta även gäller manliga aktiva, som inte blir av med envisa hästskötare och gratis hjälpredor. Polisanmälan, samtal, sjukskrivning, besök hemma hos värst utsatta, en slutade som fick "skitjobb" istället för det hon var anställd för.

Allt finns dokumenterat och har presenterats i pappersformat till ST: Har nu bytt hemmabana och allt ligger numera sopat under mattan Hästsport är inte enbart trav och galopp Tur för Peder, men allt är ju relativt Elitloppsförsök med Bold Eagle , ett av de värsta lopp man sett!

De som pratar om att hästen "svek" i Finalen vet inte hur anatomi i en hästkropp fungerar. Dyrt för spelarna och en evig väntan för fansen. Bara att klappa händerna. Nä, inte de blodbyten som görs bakom lyckta stalldörrar. Han har lite att jobba med under En knölig parkering där man riskerar punka verkar vara intresselöst. Vart tog intresset för kunderna vägen? Varför inte kavla upp ärmarna och börja jobba istället, ta hjälp av de som bevisligen kan och erkänn att det behövs nya grepp även i travsporten.

Hästar är ett sätt att leva, inte enbart ett spel. Friad i hovrätten, eller kanske hov-rätten. Djurskyddet i alla ära. Sveriges modigaste banveterinär eller bara vanligt simpelt maktutövande, välj själva. Vanten som blev en tumme som blev Vem är ansvarig för banbyggnationen, fanns kompetens? Efter nyligt besök i Newmarket där det regnar mer än ofta undrar man ju verkligen!

Starttillfällen, prispengar, möjligheter att försörja sig själv och hästarna är inte bara att glömma? Bodentravet fick en ny tävlingsdag av Bro Park, grattis Boden. Tack Solvalla Damklubb för att ni orkar!

Nöjd med hästen men inte med publikbortfallet Lopp 1 a högst Lopp 7 a lägst En blev utkörd av veterinär. Ett nästan tomt Solvalla lystes upp av ren och skär segerglädje, och vi fick vara med.

Försök och Final i V65 bärgades. Legolas fortsatte att vinna, i C. Totalt travade Legolas in 2. V65 fick ett uppsving utan like när Legolas tävlade, oavsett travbana. Efter pensionering fick Legolas och sällskapsponnyn mat och husrum livet ut av ATG som tack. Vill Du veta mer om Legolas? Sportchefen Malin Baryard lyckades bjuda in de bästa, bästa. The Winner took it all! Rosi Hochegger och prickiga knabstruppen Scout roar rejält! Tidningsomslag berättade om den försvunna Diamanten hästen.

Den flyttade Diamanten, följt av nästa omslag Stig H trappar upp. Självklart är det trist för alla tränare att förlora en häst som man själv plockat ut, tränat upp och som vunnit massor av lopp! Eller i klartext, travat in runt 5,6 miljoner kr och vunnit 20 av 26 lopp. Rekommenderas en härlig vintervila! Bara Bergh och ägarna vet den riktiga anledningen till flytten. Hästen var inte försvunnen, den hade flyttat.

Om den hästen och tränaren skrevs minimala rader och proffslicensen finns givetvis kvar. Inga omslagssidor där inte. Helt enkelt pensionera sig som Victory Tilly gjorde. Men inte ännu, och spännande fortsättning följer givetvis med Diamanten. Helena Ehn gled av hästen Curly Pine, föll ur sadeln och stöp i backen. En fraktur i bakhuvudet och fraktur i översta kotan av ryggraden.

Omtöcknad klev hon upp och red loppet! Hoppas v ä rkligen att det inte stämmer. Förhandlades bort enligt ST: Ett upphandlat avtal med tre fyra försäkringsbolag inblandade som sköter olika delar, eller inget alls. En försäkring värd namnet. Förmodar att det är ett sto Varje sommar händer det. I hagen, i stallet. Sällan eller aldrig leder anmälan till straff. Ingen hög prioritet hos polisen precis. Det kan börja brinna. Stängd dörr och övervakningskamera?

Hjälper i de flesta fall, men riktiga skurkar finns inte och syns inte. Fick tag i halskedjan och slet ut en slapp, tung kropp. Hade definitivt inte "alla hästar hemma" stammade och svettades med en arg hund i byxbenet. Otur för honom, jag sov över i stallet. Om det händer, när det händer? Religion avsaknad av motsatta könet? Grabba tag i närmsta stackars djur, som inte kan försvara sig? Lagen är otydlig och tandlös. Sex med djur är därför inte i egentlig mening brottsligt i Sverige.

Könsumgänge mellan människa och djur var i medeltida lagar ett brott med dödsstraff, även djuret avlivades. Svea Hovrätts arkiv visar män och 7 kvinnor straffade för tidelag. England har länge varit enda land i Europa med tydligt förbud mot djursex. I övriga länder straffas man med dagsböter, oftast inte för själva övergreppet! I ett liknande fall, blev en man anmäld och dömd till kronor i böter. Men utan djurpolis och bristande svenskt intresse för den här typen av brott, tvingas man göra jobbet själv.

Enda EU-parlamentariker som bott i en husvagn utanför högkvarteret i Bryssel och avsagt sig en del av arvodet. Ingen viktig post i brottsstatistiken Konkret handlade det om djur som skurits i könsdelarna, tio anmälda fall täcktes inte av lagstiftningen.

Det tunga slitet med fölungar, ston och stalljobb kan aldrig hitta nog med arbetskraft. Privat foto - Farfar och Frances Nibs som fölunge. Men man växer fort om man vill vara med. Hela hennes travliv hade kantats av resor och vinster runt om i Europa, om detta kan man läsa i tränaren Sören Nordins böcker. Väsby Stuteris stolthet, Scotch Nibs. Farfar blev galen, han hade inte samma uppfattning om vad proberhingsten behövde.

Utan sadel, ner till sjön, är ni galna flickor! Det kan man kalla äventyr. Vem som gjorde vad med travdrottningen spekulerades det länge vilt om, men ett sorgligt slut blev det. Einar väljer bilder till Hovtramps reportage i Magasin Hästsport.

Ett livsverk med kameran utan motstycke, främst i hästarnas värld. Dagen blev lyckad för Einar, som var i sitt esse och fick träffa massor av gamla vänner och aktiva i häst och mediavärlden. Einar "beställde den här bilden" med Maria, vid Travgalan Rikstototavlor varje vecka till uppfödare, ägare, tränare, skötare. Att välja rätt bilder. Thomas , Einars son, inte alls oäven fotograf, men gick tidigt sin egen väg.

Fortsatte som den fantastiska VD: En tid vi sällan glömmer, av flera anledningar. Vila i frid Mats. Tar fantastiska bilder när hjärtat är med och lusten finns. Senare krigsreporter och kändisfotograf utomlands. Följde gisslandramat med andan i halsen. Tog även som ung oftast livet med en klackspark. Vilken praktikant minns vi bäst? Men säg den lycka som varar för evigt.

Tack för allt Einar, en av världens bästa hästfotografer. Alla vet vad han pratar om men ingen ser elefanten i rummet. Donald Trump och hans mystiska uttalande i bakgrunden gör inte trovärdigheten större.

Att dölja den sanning som breder ut sig i varenda stad, förort nästan överallt? Man undrar ju verkligen vad syftet är! Farfar i Korpilombolo som kokar älgmule med jakthunden som väntar nedanför vedspisen. Vinterbleka människor som sprutar falsk solbränna över kroppen. Kanske är det bara meningen att skapa uppmärksamhet, visa ett Sverige som inte finns längre.

Vart tog travsporten vägen? Hovtramps resa till Newmarket, England i bilder. Han har gjort sitt jobb igen, bara att titta och njuta. Fälttävlansritten som blev ödesdiger och slutade med en rejäl skada och sluridet.

Hästar med tofflor, självsanerande golv,. Ett rött skynke som hon verkligen inte gillade och hade en glasklar förklaring till. Hennes övertygelse var att sporten inte skulle vara beroende av bidrag, vilket förmodligen är lättare att tycka när man är en av världens rikaste kvinnor.

Helst ville hon nog inte sälja en enda häst, utan att veta vart de hamnade och hos vem. Vad minns vi mer? Annat att minnas länge. Upplevelsen runt en riktig brittisk hästauktion, med uppfödare, köpare och säljare och inte minst, Sheik Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum som strosade runt och bevakade auktionshästar av intresse. En hästresa att minnas länge. Nya och roliga bekantskaper.

Vilka hästarkrafter, vilken fart och vilket hovmuller! Vem blir först att lösa Svensk Galopps "Finn fem fel? Kanske blir det Svensk Galopps sportchef, han verkar ju i allafall vara uppdaterad och intresserad, om än lite frustrerad? Läs senaste sportblogg och begrunda nuläge och antalet hästar i träning!

Varför ökar inte intresset för svensk galopp? Det är ju knappast hästarnas fel? Borde intresserat fler, eller hur? Är det kanske hästägarnas fel? Vart tog kulorna vägen egentligen?

Det är nog hästägarnas fel, svenska miljonärer verkar ha tagit slut eller dött ut. Proffstränarna, är det deras fel att inte svensk galopp fungerar? Fel nummer 4 - kanske är det ryttarnas fel? Närproducerat och VDN-deklarerat borde väckt betydligt större intresse. Speciellt i ett land där hästen brukshästar är ett kulturarv. Hästarna orkar definitivt bära högre vikter. Bro Park , en fantastisk anläggning med massor av möjligheter!

Ett litet pressrum kanske? Har rätt folk verkligen varit inblandade i bygget? Redan nu omläggning av nya banan, rastpaddockar under en period med ytlager av byggdamm, mögel!? En del for ju ut lika fort, med halshästar och inskränkta träningsmöjligheter.

Ja, har haft stallet fullt även med fullblod, och kan tänka. Och var i hela friden är snickarglädjen och utsmyckningen av de nya stallbyggnaderna? Hur tänkte man nu? Arkitekter i all ära, men vart tog de vägen? Inte ens under vistelser i Arab-Emiraten. Katalogen liknar en lövtunn bibel förpackad i blankt fodral.

Hälsar till och med. Tränare med köpstarka hästägare i följe skrider fram mellan hästar och visningsring. Spännande värre även om man vet hur det ska sluta! Born to Sea IRE u. Nä, det blev ingen ny häst att ta med sig hem.

Oj, vad liten svensk galopp plötsligt blev. En häst kan ju faktiskt bryta benet när som helst. Är det ett sto, nästan lika illa. Fast man vet aldrig.

Ett gräsgrönt landskap, en liten stad med bykänsla och nästan bara hästfolk, kan det vara möjligt? Billigaste biljett kostar runt kronor.

Banan fylls snabbt av folk, uppskattningsvis Trots klädkod, slips, kavaj och hatt. Vi ska käka lunch! Tetrapak-arvingen tar emot i sitt kontor, där avelskatalogerna fyller hela rummet. Idag finns tre stuterier och 46 anställda. Allt är minutiöst planerat!

Det handlar om att ta hand om hingstarna och ge dem ett bra liv, säger hon. Där vi fick massor av information som aldrig publicerats och känslor som svallade. Bidrag i hästsporten intresserade inte heller Kirsten Rausing, snarare var de ett rött skynke.

R oligast den här dagen var varken tävlingarna eller Lanwades Stud. Det var brunch med "gänget. Nä, han hittade det inte. Hur gick det till? Han gjorde det, igen Har precis pustat ut efter Svenskt TravKriterium , tror luften gick ur oss nästan allihop!

Som Olle Goop brukade säga - trav är trav. Har aldrig passat bättre. Med Coin Perdu i spetsen, som den moraliska vinnaren. Behövde i princip bara ställa fram vagnen enligt tipsnissarna, knappt köra loppet. Uppfödd, tränad och ägd av Timo. Villiam är en familjeprodukt, döpt efter farfar Nurmos. I ett lopp med 7 startande. Inte illa för att ta sig runt 2. En riktigt penningstinn dag för alla aktiva.

En hästfest för alla som gillar galopp eller att damma av hatt och överrock, stryka finklänningen och putsa klackskorna. Galoppens klädkod skiljer sig som natt och dag mot travsportens. Hästskötaren är en viktig person i galoppvärlden, eftersom de till skillnad mot travets hästskötare i princip gör "hela" jobbet.

Brownie med Oliver Wilson i sadeln vann! Moderne-Niga ägdes av Stall Jersö och blev svensk galopps första miljonär. Loppet var i och för sig stängt vid Svensk galopp är extremt liten jämfört med övriga världen. Även om hästarna Nordsvensk brukshäst inte sprang lika fort har tävling med häst alltid mött intresse och spel om pengar skulle knappast avta ens om vi tävlade med sköldpaddor.

Det finns aktiva tränare just nu, 58 är proffstränare. Men galoppsporten som sport och hästarna är ljuvliga, fantastiska och hästarnas formel 1! Mot Newmarket Racetrack och Rausings stuteri onsdag…ja, jag har köpt en hatt. Nu ska travsport granskas, fantastiska hästar i text och bilder, helgfrid infinna sig.

Fem olika bolag har sammanställt kostnader och begär ersättning för felaktig bokföring, skador och förlust. En av andelshästarna Västerbo Armant avlivades kort efter tränarbyte och Björn Goop skylls för skadans uppkomst.

Ett beslut prejudicerande i liknande rättsfall, intressant fortsättning följer. Sitter dom och kör lopp med skadade halta? Det som konstateras är att travtränarnas anatomiska, träningsfysiologiska kunskaper varierar lika kraftigt som brunst hos ston…. Ett liknande exempel finns färskt i minnet Vad säger det om just den travtränaren?

Näringsförbud i hästsport, nä. Trista sidor med politiskt tillrättalagda floskler…. Nä, tänkte väl det. Öh, hörde vi rätt? Vilket givetvis stegrade arbetet med obligatorisk slaggjord i travsport. Nu har han väl tomtat färdigt i allafall?

Av allt mediaskval som funnits under veckan och travat iväg är det en prof. Lojalitetskonflikt mot övriga aktiva? Det ska inte ens finnas fog att misstänka fördelar för utvalda gullegrisar. Som vi har väntat! Jägersros travtränare gjorde det! I denna krissituation för svensk travsport bekände "experterna" färg.

Ett par minuters gravlik svammeltystnad intog tv-rutan. Äntligen satte de ner foten! Sammanfattningsvis blir man rörd, glad, hoppfull. Äntligen hände det som borde hänt för länge sedan. De spelade mest tennis och fikade. Som aktiv travtränare de som jobbar i stallet! Pennan, tredje statsmakten, press och media tillsammans med aktiva hade kunnat uträtta mycket mer! Vad kan hända om inte besluten gillas av de aktiva? Luften gick ur mig. Jag är rent ut sagt besviken.

Tävlingsprogrammet var redan klubbat!? En förhandlingsprocess som lämnar allt övrigt att önska. När telefonmötet mellan travtränarna Peter G. Räcker inte det finns Ja, man blir precis som Halberg rätt matt. Ungefär som när Järnladyn Tatcher talade vänligt till folket och berättade att — vi har blivit farmor.

Hovtramp - Lasse - hästskötare Hur ser en dag ut i ett stall? Gissa vem som fick betala Träffade faktiskt en hästskötare som bytt nyligen och fick intressant information om jobbets för och nackdelar.

Hinner inte göra av med lönen. Behöver inte en massa kläder, gick lika bra med gummistövlar och mysbrallor. I ett mindre travstall fick personalen ta alldeles för stort ansvar, utan att ha varken kompetens eller tillräcklig erfarenhet. Väntade, väntade och väntade. Parkerade bilen i närheten bakom närmsta kulle med utsikt över rundbanan, öppnade termosen med kaffe och väntade, och väntade, och väntade. Det löste sig kvickt.

Samma eftermiddag bytte hästarna tränare. Hästar är ett sätt att leva, inte bara överleva. Hingsten Tampikos gamla domäner där stuteri, travträning och betande tjurar samsas omgivna av Mälarens vatten. Farfar Lars Eriksson, kallad Pjäxa, överlämnade selen till Lester Eriksson, som efter avslutat simkarriär 17 ind.

Pappa Lester finns fortfarande i bakgrunden och dotter Ida kör ungdomslopp. En härlig promenad leder till betesmarken, ston och föl. Ulrika känner igen varenda sto och fölunge, flocken kommer springande när hon visslar.

Ett gäng yngre hjälpredor pysslar med fölston och fölungar, förklaring till att fölen är ovanligt orädda och nyfikna. Eko-templet är en underlig byggnad uppförd av konsul Jansson som köpte sin konsul-titel i Norge. Goldhook , värd namnet, hann bara med 42 lopp Ulrika stannar i köket och ska snart vidare mot travbanan. Hon ger inte upp i första taget.

En riktigt trevlig dag i travsportens namn. Har inte glömt Solvalla i onsdags, med Legendlopp och Jubileumspokal, fast det kom mycket viktigare lopp emellan Beata var segersugen efter "ofrivillig vila" och stoet vann lika lätt som vanligt. En fet, rik och snäll pamp som dog utfattig, en inte helt naturlig död.

Nästa travdag är allt som vanligt igen. Blir det mer intressant för att man kallar sig team istället för stall , yearling istället för unghäst? Snyggt Auktionsprogram katalog Mia Törnberg Sulkysport AB och trevlig auktionsmiljö undantag bastubadet i middagsavdelning.

Säkerhetsmässigt betydligt bättre arrangerat än tidigare. Ibland undrar man hur de tänkte eller om de inte hade avsikt att sälja.

Problemet är inte att köpa häst, utan när man gifter sig med kusen Vilka hästar vann skönhetstävlingen? Inte bara en vanlig mössa eller ansiktsmask längre! Bifogar en enklare översättning , läs hellre länken. I annat fall är det ju prestationshöjande och kräver karens i svenska tävlingssammanhang?

Mdean normal frekvens vad är det? Med hjälp av Liquid titanium? Visst blir man glad! Äntligen här, ansiktsmasken vi längtat efter! Varför dör travhästar under travtävlingar? Travsporten drivs av spel, inte av djurskydd. Alla undrar givetvis vad hästen dog av.

Vilket knappast sker i travfabrikerna. I Mette Pökelmanns 64 obduktionsrapporter är vanligaste dödsorsak cirkulationssvikt 22st akuta lungblödningar 13 akut cirkulationsvikt och akut lungblödning 8.

Medicinering, karens och behandlingar skiljer sig stort mellan olika länder även inom EU. I exempelvis Usa handlar allt, precis allt om att vinna och till nästan vilket pris som helst. Givetvis köper ingen travintresserad människa häst med vetskap om att det finns en massa problem, de blir helt enkelt grundlurade av säljaren, i dessa fall aktiva med licens.

Hästar som senare visat sig vara fulltankade med preparat som slagit ut inre organ och omöjliggjort tävlande. Stod inte i köpet men ingick. Ja, tyvärr har bra rykte och figurerar ofta i press och media.

Knappt inriden, halt överallt. Det kan man verkligen undra. Ja, hästägaren vann till slut i Tingsrätten efter förlikning, med lite hjälp bakom kulisserna. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.

The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta and pancreas, and is restricted to the dendritic subpopulation of the leukocytes. Its leaves grow in a single whorl below a flower growing in two whorls. Etymology The generic name Paris is derived from the word pars, or equal, which refers to the symmetry of the plant and the multiples of four in which its foliage, flowers, and fruits grow.

Circulating unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid lens-shaped structures,[3][4]: As more platelets gather around the opening, they produce more ligands to amplify the response. The platelets congregate around the wound in order to create a cap to stop blood flow out of the tissue. On a stained blood smear, platel Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.

A winter annual with a relatively short life cycle, A. For a complex multicellular eukaryote, A. The basal leaves are green to slightly purplish in color, 1. Toll-like receptors TLRs are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. Once these microbes have reached physical barriers such as the skin or intestinal tract mucosa, they are recognized by TLRs, which activate immune cell responses.

Activated NALP3 in turn triggers an immune response. Mutations in the NLRP3 gene are associated with a number of organ specific autoimmune diseases. Solms-laubachia is a high-altitude genus of perennial herbs in the family Brassicaceae. It is named for the German botanist Hermann zu Solms-Laubach. Taxonomy In , Yue et al. They also described four new species. Sun Solms-laubachia baiogoinensis K.

Sun Solms-laubachia calcicola J. Sun Solms-laubachia eurycarpa Maxim. These large phagocytes are found in essentially all tissues,[3] where they patrol for potential pathogens by amoeboid movement. They take various forms with various names throughout the body e. Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense innate immunity and also help initiate specific defense mechanisms adaptive immunity by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes.

For example, they are important as antigen presenters to T cells. In humans, dysfunctional macrophages Scheme of the complement system The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

It is part of the innate immune system,[1] which is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime. The complement system can, however, be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system. The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, synthesized by the liver, and circulate as inactive precursors.

When stimulated by one of several triggers, proteases in the system cleave specific proteins to release cytokines and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages. The end result of this complement activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, inflammation to attract Interleukin 6 IL-6 is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.

In humans, it is encoded by the IL6 gene. Smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of many blood vessels also produce IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Function IL-6 is an important mediator of fever and of the acute phase response. It is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier[6] and initiating synthesis of PGE in the hypothalamus, thereby changing the body's temperature setpoint.

In muscle and fatty tissue, IL-6 stimulates energy mobilization that leads to increased body temperature. IL-6 can be secreted by macrophages in response to specific microbial molecules, referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs. These PAMPs bind to an important gr The arginine catabolic mobile element ACME is a mobile genetic element of Staphylococcus bacterial species.

This genetic element provides for several immune modulating functions, including resistance to polyamines which serve as a non-specific immune response both on intact skin and following the inflammatory response in wound healing. Toll-like receptor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR10 gene. TLR10 has not been extensively studied because it is a pseudogene in mice, though all other mammalian species contain an intact copy of the TLR10 gene.

Unlike other TLRs, TLR10 does not activate the immune system and has instead been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling on primary human cells.

No ligand is currently known for TLR Function The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the toll-like receptor TLR family which play a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunit Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.

In this process, immune cells recognize foreign danger signals within themselves, release pro-inflammatory cytokines, swell, burst and die. The released cytokines attract other immune cells to fight the infection and contribute to inflammation in the tissue.

Pyroptosis promotes the rapid clearance of various bacterial and viral infections by removing intracellular replication niches and enhancing the host's defensive responses. However, in pathogenic chronic diseases, the inflammatory response does not eradicate the primary stimulus, as would normally occur in most cases of infection or injury, and thus a chronic form of inflammation ensues that ultimately contributes to tissue damage.

Some examples of pyroptosis include Salmonella-infected macrophages[1] and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells. Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the leak on April 15, As of May 19, The Panama Papers are The cGAS—STING pathway is a component of the innate immune system that functions to detect the presence of cytosolic DNA and, in response, trigger expression of inflammatory genes that can lead to senescence[1] or to the activation of defense mechanisms.

DNA is normally found in the nucleus of the cell. Localization of DNA to the cytosol is associated with tumorigenesis or viral infection. IRF3 can then go to the nucleus to trigger transcription of inflammatory genes.

This pathway plays a critical role in mediating immune defense against double-stranded DNA viruses. The innate immune system relies on germline encoded pattern recognition receptors PRRs to recognize distinct pathogen-associated mole Adrenomedullin ADM or AM is a vasodilator peptide hormone of uncertain significance in human health and disease. It was initially isolated in from a pheochromocytoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla: ADM is a peptide expressed by all tissues, and found in the circulation.

A similar peptide named adreomedullin2 was reported in rats in which exhibits a similar function. It was initially identified as a vasodilator, and some argued that it is the most potent endogenous vasodilatory peptide found in the body.

Differences in opinion regarding the ability of AM to relax vascular tone may arise from the differences in the model system used. Profilin is an actin-binding protein involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton.

Profilin is important for spatially and temporally controlled growth of actin microfilaments, which is an essential process in cellular locomotion and cell shape changes. This restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for processes such as organ development, wound healing, and the hunting down of infectious intruders by cells of the immune system.

Profilin also binds sequences rich in the amino acid proline in diverse proteins. While most profilin in the cell is bound to actin, profilins have over 50 different binding partners. Many of those are related to actin regulation, but profilin also seems to be involved in activities in the nucleus such as mRNA splicing.

The function of this interaction is t Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological functions. It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nucl IRAK-4 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 , in the IRAK family, is a protein kinase involved in signaling innate immune responses from Toll-like receptors.

It also supports signaling from T-cell receptors. IRAK4 is important for its clinical applications. Toll-like receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR8 gene.

It is a member of the toll-like receptor TLR family. Function TLR8 seems to function differently in humans and mice. Until recently, TLR8 was believed to be nonfunctional in mice, but it seems to counteract TLR7 activity[6][7] The TLR family plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. This gene is predominantly expressed in lung and peripheral blood leukocytes, and lies in close proximity to another family member, TLR7, on chromosome X.

Salvia is the largest genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae, with the number of species estimated to range from to nearly 1, Members include shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. There are three main regions of radiation of Salvia: Central and South America, with approximately species; central Asia and the Mediterranean with approx. Salvia officinalis common sage , for example, has been cultivated for thousands of years, yet has been named and described under six different scientific names since alone.

At one time there were over 2, named species and subspecies. The most recent revision was done in by Gabriel Alziar of the Jardin botanique de la Ville de Nice—it consolidated the number of different species to approximately As new discoveries are made, the taxonomic list WRKY transcription factors are primarily specific to plants and algae Viridiplantae ; although, individual WRKY proteins do appear in the human protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

WRKY transcription factors play a major role in plant defense to abiotic and biotic stresses,[2] but also contribute to plant development and secondary metabolism.

TLR2 is one of the toll-like receptors and plays a role in the immune system. TLR2 is a membrane protein, a receptor, which is expressed on the surface of certain cells and recognizes foreign substances and passes on appropriate signals to the cells of the immune system. Function The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor TLR family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. This gene is expressed most abundant The 23 nucleotide single-stranded miR, which is harbored in exon 3, is subsequently processed from the parent RNA molecule.

This gene spans bp, is composed of three exons, and encodes a bp non-coding primary-miR

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En hästfest för alla som gillar galopp eller att damma av hatt och överrock, stryka finklänningen och putsa klackskorna. I Solvallas gamla inskrivningskontor huserade salig Kurt Kyrk , proffstränare som mest stod bredvid och berättade hur drängarna skulle göra.

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Donald Trump och hans mystiska uttalande i bakgrunden gör inte trovärdigheten större. Opisthorchiasis is widespread in Russia, especially Western Siberia.

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